and processes that can only come from a sustained program of basic science and engineering. DOE's Office of Science already supports such a program, as does OFE's Advanced Research and Technology Development Program (AR&TD). The results of DOE's basic research programs can be directed toward the needs of Vision 21 (e.g., in materials and other areas) so new developments can be incorporated into Vision 21 concepts as they occur. Over time, Vision 21 can become the primary focus of OFE's program in coal and power systems.


DOE (U.S. Department of Energy). 1999a. Who We Are. Available on line at:

DOE. 1999b. Vision 21 Program Plan: Clean Energy Plants for the 21st Century. Morgantown, W.V.: Federal Energy Technology Center.

EIA (Energy Information Administration). 1999. Annual Energy Outlook 1999. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Energy.

PCAST (President's Committee of Advisors on Science and Technology). 1997. Federal Energy Research and Development for the Twenty-First Century. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President.

PCAST. 1999. Powerful Partnerships: The Federal Role in International Cooperation on Energy Innovation. Washington, D.C.: Executive Office of the President.

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