to the Chief of Naval Research at the Supreme Allied Commander, Atlantic (SACLANT) Center in La Spezia, Italy, and a Green Scholar at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Dr. Baggeroer's research is primarily related to advanced signal processing methods applied to sonar, ocean acoustics, and geophysics.

Alan Berman, an independent consultant, currently consults for the Center for Naval Analyses, where he assists with analyses of Navy research and development (R&D) investment programs, space operation capabilities, and information operations. He also consults for the Applied Research Laboratory of Pennsylvania State University, where he provides general management support and program appraisal. Dr. Berman's background is in defense research and technology, particularly in regard to advanced weapon and combat systems. He is regarded as a leading expert on combat systems. He was at one time dean of the Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences at the University of Miami and at another, director of research at the Naval Research Laboratory. Dr. Berman has served on numerous government advisory and scientific boards. He is currently a member of the Naval Studies Board. He is also a member of the Free Electron Laser (FEL) oversight board that advises the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory of the Department of Energy on its FEL program.

Gerald A. Cann, an independent consultant, currently consults for the Raytheon Company. He recently retired as senior advisor to the Raytheon Executive Office. Mr. Cann's background is in system development from the viewpoints of both industry and government. Mr. Cann is a former vice president of the General Dynamics Company, where he created a new business unit that formed alliances with both internal divisions of the company and major outside participants in undersea warfare. He has held several government positions, including Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Development, and Acquisition (responsible for acquisition policy, procedure, and execution of all research, development, production, shipbuilding, and logistics programs); Principal Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Navy for Research, Engineering, and Systems; and Director of Naval Warfare in the Department of Defense for Research and Engineering. He completed his term as a member of the Naval Studies Board in 1999.

A. Douglas Carmichael is professor (emeritus) of power engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His background is in naval propulsion systems. He joined the Department of Ocean Engineering at MIT in 1970, where submarine propulsion was his primary research interest. Prior to joining MIT, Dr. Carmichael was research fellow at the Imperial College of Science and Technology, London, England. He is the author of a very large number of publications on naval propulsion, including the design impacts of alternative technologies. He is a fellow of the Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers.

Thomas A. Clare is a senior consultant to Techmatics, Inc., an Anteon Company. He has more than 30 years of diversified management and senior executive experience in the research and development of large, complex systems, software development, science and technology management, human resources management, and R&D laboratory management. As the former executive director of the Navy's largest R&D laboratory, Dr. Clare made major contributions to the research and development of undersea weapons systems, surface combatants, aircraft carriers, Navy and Marine Corps systems, including Aegis, the submarine-launched ballistic missile Tomahawk, and theater ballistic missile defense weapon and combat systems. He has also been a key advisor and leader in the Navy and the Department of Defense scientific and technology community, particularly in systems engineering and weapon system concepts. He has served on numerous government advisory and scientific boards, addressing the need for systems engineering and management policies and practices across the services in an era of reduced



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