Time-Use Measurement and Research

Report of a Workshop

Committee on National Statistics

Michele Ver Ploeg, Joseph Altonji, Norman Bradburn, Julie DaVanzo, William Nordhaus, and Francisco Samaniego, Editors

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop Time-Use Measurement and Research Report of a Workshop Committee on National Statistics Michele Ver Ploeg, Joseph Altonji, Norman Bradburn, Julie DaVanzo, William Nordhaus, and Francisco Samaniego, Editors Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The project that is the subject of this report is supported by Contract SES-9709489 between the National Academy of Sciences and the U.S. Department of Labor and the National Institute of Aging. Support of the work of the Committee on National Statistics is provided by a consortium of federal agencies through a grant from the National Science Foundation (Number SBR-9709489). Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07092-9 Additional copies of this report are available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area). This report is also available on line at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council (2000) Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop. Committee on National Statistics. Michele Ver Ploeg, Joseph Altonji, Norman Bradburn, Julie DaVanzo, William Nordhaus, and Francisco Samaniego, Editors. Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL STATISTICS 1999-2000 JOHN E. ROLPH (Chair), Marshall School of Business, University of Southern California JOSEPH G. ALTONJI, Department of Economics, Northwestern University LAWRENCE D. BROWN, Department of Statistics, Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania JULIE DAVANZO, RAND, Santa Monica, California WILLIAM F. EDDY, Department of Statistics, Carnegie Mellon University HERMANN HABERMANN, Statistics Division, United Nations WILLIAM KALSBEEK, Survey Research Unit, Department of Biostatistics, University of North Carolina RODERICK J.A. LITTLE, School of Public Health, University of Michigan THOMAS A. LOUIS, Division of Biostatistics, University of Minnesota School of Public Health CHARLES F. MANSKI, Department of Economics, Northwestern University WILLIAM NORDHAUS, Department of Economics, Yale University EDWARD B. PERRIN, Department of Health Services, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, University of Washington FRANCISCO J. SAMANIEGO, Division of Statistics, University of California, Davis RICHARD L. SCHMALENSEE, Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology MATTHEW D. SHAPIRO, Department of Economics and Survey Research Center, University of Michigan ANDREW A. WHITE, Director

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop WORKSHOP PARTICIPANTS Presenters and Discussants Julie DaVanzo (Chair), RAND, Santa Monica, California* Katharine Abraham, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Joseph G. Altonji, Northwestern University* Lorna Bailie, Statistics Canada, Ottawa Suzanne Bianchi, University of Maryland Michael Bittman, University of New South Wales, Australia Rebecca M. Blank, U.S. Council of Economic Advisers Norman Bradburn, National Opinion Research Center, University of Chicago Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Columbia University Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, University of Chicago Nancy Folbre, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Daniel Hamermesh, University of Texas, Austin Anna Regula Herzog, University of Michigan Sandra Hofferth, University of Michigan Michael Horrigan, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Dale Jorgenson, Harvard University F. Thomas Juster, University of Michigan J. Steven Landefeld, Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce Robert Michael, University of Chicago William Nordhaus, Yale University* Robert A. Pollak, Washington University John P. Robinson, University of Maryland John E. Rolph, University of Southern California* Francisco J. Samaniego, University of California, Davis* Jack E. Triplett, Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C. Linda J. Waite, University of Chicago Jiri Zuzanek, University of Waterloo, Canada Other Participants Donald M. Bay, National Agricultural Statistics Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Nancy Crowell, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council *   Member, Committee on National Statistics

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop Cathryn Dippo, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Vincent Fang, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation Barbara Fraumeni, Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce Jack Galvin, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Caren Grown, The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Chicago, Illinois Nora Gordon, U.S. Council of Economic Advisers Kenneth Hanson, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Andrew Harvey, Saint Mary’s University, Canada Diane Herz, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Jennifer Holmstead, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Bradford R. Huther, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce Mary Joyce, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Ken Kaplan, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce Kevin Kinsella, Committee on Population, National Research Council Michele Kipke, Board on Children, Youth, and Families, National Research Council Deborah Klein, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Heather Koball, University of North Carolina Edward Kokkelenberg, Binghamton University Marilyn Manser, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Stephanie McCulla, Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce William Mockovak, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Daniel H. Newlon, U.S. National Science Foundation Stanley Presser, University of Maryland Cordelia Reimers, U.S. Council of Economic Advisers Edwin Robison, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Philip L. Rones, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Kathleen Scholl, U.S. General Accounting Office Ashish Sen, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation Stephanie Shipp, Bureau of the Census, U.S. Department of Commerce James Spletzer, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Jay Stewart, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Linda Stinson, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Miron L. Straf, Bureau of Transportation Statistics, U.S. Department of Transportation

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop Richard Suzman, National Institute on Aging Barbara Torrey, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, National Research Council Clyde Tucker, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor Stephen Vogel, Economic Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture Staff Michele Ver Ploeg, Study Director Connie Citro, Staff Officer Telissia Thompson, Senior Project Assistant

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop Acknowledgments On behalf of the Committee on National Statistics (CNSTAT) and its subcommittee on the time-use workshop, I would like to thank the many people who generously contributed to the organization of the workshop and preparation of this summary. I first thank all the workshop participants, who presented interesting, high-quality papers, prepared formal discussions of the papers or who contributed to the exciting informal discussion at the workshop. I would like to recognize the contributions of my fellow subcommittee members, Joseph Altonji, Norman Bradburn, William Nordhaus, and Francisco Samaniego, for the time and terrific ideas they contributed to the planning of the workshop and to the preparation of this summary. Special thanks are extended as well to F. Thomas Juster and Robert A. Pollak for commenting on early versions of the workshop summary. Several staff members should be commended for their efforts towards the conduct of the workshop and the completion of this report: Telissia Thompson, senior project assistant, skillfully coordinated the workshop logistics and Jamie Casey, project assistant, carefully prepared this report for publication. The subcommittee wants particularly to acknowledge its tremendous gratitude to Michele Ver Ploeg, who was the study director for this workshop. The successful conduct of the workshop and completion of this report are in large part due to Shelly’s diligent and skillful efforts. The committee is also grateful to Eugenia Grohman, associate director for reports in the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education, for her editing. The Bureau of Labor Statistics, the National Institute of Aging, and TIAA/CREF sponsored the workshop; we are grateful for their support.

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: W. Keith Bryant, Department of Policy Analysis and Management, Cornell University; Paula England, Department of Sociology and Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania; Chris Jackson, National Accounts and Environment Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa; Reed Larson, Department of Human and Community Development, University of Illinois, Champaign/Urbana; Kenneth Shepsle, Department of Government, Harvard University; Frank Stafford, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan. Although the individuals listed above provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Julie DaVanzo, Chair Time-Use Workshop Subcommittee Committee on National Statistics

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop Contents 1   INTRODUCTION   1 2   THE IMPORTANCE OF TIME-USE DATA   5      Time-Use Data for Public Policy,   5      Augmented National Economic Accounts,   6      Work and Retirement,   8      Child and Family Care,   10      Welfare Reform,   11      Time-Use Data for Understanding Well-Being,   11 3   CONCEPTUAL ISSUES   15      General Conceptual Approach,   15      Household Time Use,   18      Valuation of Household Production and Time Use,   20      Simultaneous Activities,   22 4   THE CURRENT STATE OF DATA ON TIME USE   26      Time-Use Surveys in the United States,   26      University of Michigan Surveys,   26      University of Maryland Surveys,   28      Time-Use Surveys in Other Countries,   29      Canadian Time-Use Surveys,   29      Australian Time-Use Surveys,   30      Eurostat’s Harmonized Time-Use Survey and Pilot Survey,   31      Other Time-use Surveys,   31

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Time-Use Measurement and Research: Report of a Workshop 5   SURVEY DESIGN ISSUES   36      Methods for Measuring Time Use,   37      Time Diary Method,   37      Experiential Sampling Method,   39      Stylized Questions,   43      Observational Approaches,   45      Sampling Issues,   46      Respondent Recall in Diary Surveys,   46      Data on Multiple Days of the Week for Each Observation,   47      Data on Multiple Household Members,   48      Matching Data Collection to Data Use,   49      The 24-Hour Constraint and Stylized Questions,   50 6   THE PROPOSED BLS TIME-USE SURVEY   51      History,   51      Current Plans,   52      Discussion,   55 7   SUMMARY   58      Importance of U.S. Time-Use Data,   58      Proposed BLS Time-Use Survey,   59      Economic and Demographic Characteristics,   59      Multiple Diaries from the Same Respondent,   60      Diaries from Multiple Household Members,   60      Data for International Comparisons,   61      Future Data Collection and Methodological Research,   61     REFERENCES   63     APPENDICES         A  Workshop Agenda   69     B  Summaries of Workshop Papers   73     C  Proposed Coding System for Classifying Uses of Time for the Proposed BLS Survey   88     D  Draft Questionnaire for Proposed BLS Survey   108