Appendix B
Conference Program

INCORPORATING SCIENCE, ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY AND POLITICS IN SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY STANDARDS IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE

January 25–27, 1999

National Academy of Sciences and Engineering

Beckman Center, Irvine, California

January 25, 1999

7:15–8:00 p.m.

Keynote Address Historical and Social Science Perspectives on the Role of Risk Assessment and Science in Protecting the Domestic Economy: Some Background

G. Edward Schuh, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota



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Incorporating Science, Economics, and Sociology in Developing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards in International Trade: Proceedings of a Conference Appendix B Conference Program INCORPORATING SCIENCE, ECONOMICS, SOCIOLOGY AND POLITICS IN SANITARY AND PHYTOSANITARY STANDARDS IN INTERNATIONAL TRADE January 25–27, 1999 National Academy of Sciences and Engineering Beckman Center, Irvine, California January 25, 1999 7:15–8:00 p.m. Keynote Address Historical and Social Science Perspectives on the Role of Risk Assessment and Science in Protecting the Domestic Economy: Some Background G. Edward Schuh, Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs, University of Minnesota

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Incorporating Science, Economics, and Sociology in Developing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards in International Trade: Proceedings of a Conference January 26, 1999 8:20–8:30 a.m. Introduction V. Kerry Smith, North Carolina State University, Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics Session I: Agricultural Trade, Risk Assessment, and the Role of Culture in Risk Management Moderators: Raymond A. Jussaume, Jr., Department of Rural Sociology, Washington State University Peter Kareiva, Department of Zoology, University of Washington 8:30–9:00 Overview of SPS and Agricultural Trade Donna Roberts, Economic Research Service, USDA 9:00–9:15 Discussion 9:15–9:45 An Overview of Risk Assessment John D. Stark, Department of Entomology, Washington State University 9:45–10:00 Discussion 10:00–10:30 BREAK 10:30–11:00 Technological Risk and Cultures of Rationality Sheila Jasanoff, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University 11:00–11:15 Discussion Session II General Case Studies Moderator: Julie Caswell, Department of Resource Economics, University of Massachusetts CASE STUDY 1: MEAT SLAUGHTERING AND PROCESSING PRACTICES (INCLUDES VETERINARY EQUIVALENCE AND HAACP) 11:15–11:45 Bent Nielsen, Veterinary and Food Advisory Services, Copenhagen, Denmark 11:45–12:15 Bruce A. Silverglade, Center for Science in the Public Interest, Washington, D.C. 12:15–1:30 BREAK

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Incorporating Science, Economics, and Sociology in Developing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards in International Trade: Proceedings of a Conference CASE STUDY 2: PLANT QUARANTINES AND HASS AVOCADOS 1:30–2:00 Walther Enkerlin Hoeflich, Mexican Stone Fruit Inspection Program, Clovis, California 2:00–2:30 David Vogel, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley Case Study 3— Genetically Modified Organisms 2:30–3:00 Peter Kareiva, Department of Zoology, University of Washington 3:00–3:30 Paul B. Thompson, Department of Philosophy, Purdue University 3:35–4:00 BREAK Session III Case Study Discussions 4:00–5:30 Breakout group discussions 5:30 ADJOURN January 27, 1999 8:20–8:30 a.m. Announcements V. Kerry Smith, North Carolina State University, Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics 8:30–9:30 Individuals reports from breakout groups Session IV Political And Ecological Economy Moderators: V. Kerry Smith, North Carolina State University, Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics David Vogel, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley 9:30–10:00 Ecological Impacts Karen Goodell, Department of Ecology and Evolution, State University of New York at Stoney Brook Peter Kareiva, Department of Zoology, University of Washington

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Incorporating Science, Economics, and Sociology in Developing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards in International Trade: Proceedings of a Conference 10:00–10:45 Discussion 10:45–11:15 The Political Economy David G. Victor, Council on Foreign Relations, New York 11:15–11:30 Discussion 11:30–12:00 Accounting for Consumer Preferences in International Trade Jean-Christophe Bureau, Station d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales, Institute for Agricultural Research, Grignon, France 12:00–12:15 Discussion 12:15–1:30 BREAK Session V Resolving Current SPS Trade Disputes and Establishing a Basis for Defusing Future Conflicts (see questions below) Moderators: Timothy Josling, Institute of International Studies, Stanford University D. Warner North, NorthWorks, Inc., Belmont, Calif. 1:30–3:00 Panels and General Discussion Linda Horton, International Policy, Food and Drug Administration Dan Sumner, Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics, University of California, Davis James H. McDonald, Division of Behavioral and Cultural Studies, University of Texas at San Antonio Julie Caswell, Department of Resource Economics, University of Massachusetts 3:00–3:15 Closing Comments V. Kerry Smith, North Carolina State University, Department of Agriculture and Resource Economics 3:15 ADJOURN

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Incorporating Science, Economics, and Sociology in Developing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards in International Trade: Proceedings of a Conference DISCUSSION QUESTIONS Session III: Case Study Discussions Risk analyses incorporate scientific information to measure and describe impacts on health and the environment from exposure to contaminants. They require information of the substances, sources, exposure median and patterns, events at risk, affected populations and response options. Using the conference case studies as a basis for discussion, please provide your input to the following questions: Who (e.g., nations, organizations) performed a risk assessment? Why? What was the outcome? How was the risk assessment process managed? What sciences were involved and what was lacking in the analysis? How well were the natural and social sciences used? How did cultural values and beliefs influence the way that various countries/regions assessed the soundness of science in the process? What was the source of the problem or solution that led to that outcome (e.g., regulatory structure)? What sciences should be included and how can these sciences be integrated in risk analyses used for SPS decisionmaking? Session V: Resolving Current SPS Trade Disputes and Establishing a Basis for Defusing Future Conflicts What is the current role of natural and social sciences in SPS decisionmaking? What is missing from the decision-making process? What is the role of private sector standards and voluntary labeling systems? How far can the public authorities rely on the industry to regulate itself? Would such self-regulation work in global markets? Should one try to harmonize such liability laws across countries? What public educational needs are there in this area? Should governments coordinate their educational efforts? Is there a role for international organizations in addressing consumer concerns directly? What research needs have been identified in the area? What institutional support might be warranted for this research? What changes in the procedures of national regulatory agencies would assist with the prevention of trade conflicts? Should these agencies coordinate more, or is the responsibility for control of domestic market? Are these agencies independent of domestic vested interests, such as producer groups? What more can be done to promote the use of international standards? Has the experience with Codex, IPPC, and the OIE been satisfactory in resolving or reducing trade frictions? What are the effective limits to the use of

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Incorporating Science, Economics, and Sociology in Developing Sanitary and Phytosanitary Standards in International Trade: Proceedings of a Conference harmonized standards? Is there a role for international agencies which would have the responsibility of setting standards rather than just suggesting them? What is the role of regional and bilateral SPS agreements? Is mutual recognition of national standards a viable option? What is a reasonable conceptual and empirical framework for incorporating cultural and scientific factors in SPS decisionmaking?