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Index A Afghanistan invasion, U.S. embargo following, 136, 145, 187 Agreements, see Bilateral agreements Aircraft technological leadership in, 64 Canada volume of U.S. exports of, 232 Analytic equipment changes in controls on, 247-249, 271 competitive disadvantages of U.S. exporters of, 124-125, 247-249 delays in licensing for export, 114 diversion to Soviet Union, 43 U.S. revenue losses on, 11, 267, 270-271 volume of U.S. exports, 232 Arms Export Control Act of 1976, requirements of, 37, 70, 80 Austria export controls of, 100-101 handling of goods in transit, 190, 199 views on U.S. export control system, 198-199, 201 B Belgium, views on U.S. export control system, 193-194, 200 Bilateral agreements between U.S. and 311 non-CoCom Free World countries, 8, 14, 18, 24, 67, 71, 149, 157, 169-170, 199, 212-213 C compliance with U.S. export/reexport controls, 100 controls on West-West exports, 140 export control between U.S. and, 82, 90, 91, 117, 138, 230, 259 unilateral controls by, 100, 123 CoCom countries applications for U.S. reexport licenses, 244-246 bulk licenses for West-West trade, 138 competition to U.S. high technology from, 7, 59-65 competitive disadvantages to U.S. exporters vis-a-vis, 123 differences in control of exports, 99-101, 138, 140 enforcement cooperation with U.S., 190 handling of goods in transit, 190-191 precautions against diversions, 18, 123, 138, 140, 158, 189-190 processing times for export licenses, 113 reporting of export of new, uncontrolled

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312 INDEX items, 171 technology transfer among, 19, 171-172 U.S. discrimination against nationals of, 185, 210 volume of trade to Soviet bloc, 171-173 see also Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls; and specific countries CoCom International List administration of controls on, 139 differences between U.S. List and, 8, 123 differences in interpretation of, 138, 142, 209 expedition of decision making on, 97 proscribed destinations, 99 removal of items from, 19, 24, 25, 159, 168, 170-172, 188 reviews of, 99, 141-142, 185-186 scope of coverage, 8, 24, 97-98, 139-141, 168, 170, 172, 209 U.S. license required for export of items on, 83, 87, 109, 112, 148, 192 Computers/related equipment control of equipment incorporating, 114, 124-125 distribution of U.S. foreign sales in, 269 diversion of, 43-44, 199 foreign-manufactured components in, 55 Korean production of, 203 Malaysian production of, 204-205 technological leadership in, 64 volume of U.S. exports in, 117, 232 Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls (CoCom) balanced representation in delegations to, 19, 159-160 compliance with restrictions, 137, 207, 214 deficiencies in, 137-144 East Asian attitudes toward, 209-210, ._ _ 216, 219 Diversion establishment of, 72 European views on value of, 187-188, 196, 198 exceptions process, 142-143 foreign policy pressures on, 144-145 improvements in, 14, 136-137 members of, 101 n. 1, 137, 195 NATO relationship with, 194 obscurity of decision-making criteria, 19, 143-144, 159, 172, 188 policy toward PRC, 99, 109, 137, 210 procedures for control of exports, 98 recommendations for strengthening, 2, 19, 23-25, 159, 142-143, 168-173, 188, 209 surveillance of exports to third countries, 139 technical data controls within, 171-172 unanimity rule, 141-142 see also CoCom listings D Decontrol of analytic equipment, 247-249, 271 on basis of foreign availability, 13-14, 18, 27, 132, 156-157, 170, 175-176 Defense articles and service, definition and export restrictions, 80 Detente, effect on U.S. export control policies, 74-75 Distribution licenses (U.S.) audits of, 289, 194, 196, 253 compliance costs, 246-247 coverage afforded by, 83, 109, 228 documentation for, 87 Europeans' objections to, 189 licensee size, 116, 234 loss of foreign consignees under, 125-126, 249-251 major categories of exports under, 231-232, 269 number of, 226 procedures for obtaining, using, and keeping, 111-112 processing problems associated with, 116, 235 responsibilities of foreign consignees under, 249 restrictiveness compared with foreign licenses, 123 U.S. affiliate sales under, 229 valise of exports under. 228-229 of analytic equipment, 43 of computer equipment, 43-44, 199 definition, 4, 42 detection of, 42-44 effectiveness of U.S. Customs in preventing, 44 examples of routes of, 43-44 through non-CoCom Free World countries, 5, 148, 199, 207-209, 214, 217 prevention by CoCom countries, 18, 123, 138, 140, 158, 189-190

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INDEX 3 ~ 3 through reexports, 41, 45 risks from U.S. perspective, 261-263 Soviet technology acquisition through, 41-44 U.S. investigative authority, 43 ways of reducing, 44, 99-100, 125 Dual use products/technologies categories, 81-82, 123, 231-233 controls on, 80-92; see also National security export controls diversions of, 41-45, 199, 207-209, 214, 217 East Asian views on control of, 101, 211-212 evolution of export controls on, 71-75 market for, 6, 55-56 responsibility for deciding export control issues for, 96 reverse engineering of, 5, 47 technological commodities, 18, 157, 170; see also Foreign availability U.S. export volume, 116 see also Technical data; and specific products EEnd-use certificates countries requiring, 196, 199, 217 U.S. license requiring, 83, 148 Enforcement of export controls cooperation with U. S . in, 190- 191 discrimination in, 108-109 end-use certificates, 196, 199, 217 evidence on effectiveness of controls from, 106-107 impediments to, 139 improvements needed in, 51, 109 international import certificate/delivery verification (IC/DV), 99-101, 138, 209, 215, 218 by non-CoCom Free World countries, 190-191, 198-199, 207-209, 214 Operation Exodus program, 93, 107, 226 on reexports, 108, 123, 139-141 responsibility for, 97 voluntary compliance by U.S. companies, 22, 164 see also U.S. Customs Espionage definition, 42 deterrence value of national security export controls, 45, 51 Soviet technology acquisition through, 4, 41-42 European Economic Community elimination of trade barriers, 193, 195 views on U.S. export control policy, 195 European Parliament, objections to U.S. reexport controls, 195 European Space Agency, views on U.S. export control and technology transfer policies, 197 Export controls, see Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls; Foreign policy export controls; Multilateral export control system; National security export controls; and U.S. listings Extraterritorial controls see Reexport controls F Farewell documents, 5, 9, 41-42, 106, 184, 196 Federal Republic of Germany controls on West-West exports, 140 employment of scientists/engineers, 60, 62 handling of goods in transit, 190, 198 R&D expenditures, 59-61 trade relationship with East Germany, 197 unilateral export controls of, 100, 123 views on U.S. export control system, 197-198, 201-202 Fiber optics, technological leadership in, 64 Foreign availability of low-end technology, 18, 153, 206-207 recommended decontrol of items on basis of, 13-14, 18, 27, 132, 156-157, 170, 175-176 Soviet acquisitions of dual use items through, 44-45 U.S. failure to take account of, 13-14, 17, 132, 156-157, 175-176, 186, 200-201, 241 Foreign nationals access to U.S. universities/professional meetings, 163, 185, 210 definition, 90 employment in U.S. R&D, 17, 155-156 Foreign policy export controls distinction between national security export controls and, 19, 25, 158-159, 172-173 f

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3 14 INDEX European view of, 186-187 problems with, 14, 144-145 requirements for imposing, 130 France controls on West-West exports, 140 employment of scientists/engineers, 60, 62 export control system, 196 R&D expenditures, 59-61 views on U.S. and CoCom export control, 195-196, 201 G Great Britain Protection of Trading Interests Act, 147 see also United Kingdom H Hong Kong adherence to CoCom requirements, 216-217 diversions of technology through, 207-208 enforcement of export control, 208-209 recommendations for improvements in CoCom, 209 technological capabilities, 204-205 trade links with PRC, 204, 206, 207, 216 views on U.S. export control system, 216-217, 219-220 I Individual validated licenses (U.S.) actions and processing times by exporter size, 244 categories of exports ranked, 232-233 data availability on, 105 delays and difficulties in obtaining, 210, 235 destinations for exports under, 230-231 expedition of processing, 87 number of, 107 processing times, 113, 123 structure of, 76-79 value of exports under, 116, 228-229 Information diffusion control of, 55 see also Technical data; Technology transfer Intelligence community evidence from, on export control effectiveness, 106-107 role in national security export controls, 40, 43, 45, 52 International trade changes since WWII, 54-56 International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR), 8, 80 J Japan adherence to CoCom restrictions, 207, 214 diversions through, 207, 214 employment of scientists/engineers, 60, 62 enforcement of export controls, 207-209, 214 features of export control system, 215 objections to U.S. reexport controls, 210-211 pre-WWII benefits from U.S. technology, 71-72, 101 n. 5 processing time for export licenses, 113-114 R&D expenditures, 59-61 recommendations for improvements in CoCom, 209 segregation of military and commercial technologies, 211-212 technical data transfers by, 215 technological capabilities, 32, 63-64, 203, 205 technology transfer between Korea and, 204 U.S. reliance on components from, 55 U.S. restrictions on filing of patents in, 91 views on U.S. and CoCom controls, 214-216, 219 K Keystone equipment export control recommendations, 47 importance to Soviet bloc, 5 Korea, see South Korea L Legal sales, Soviet technology acquisition through, 4, 41, 44-45 Licenses/licensing, see U.S. export licenses/licensing

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INDEX 315 M Malaysia export control by, 209, 218 technological capabilities, 204-205, 218 Manhattan Project, 74 Mueller, Richard, 43-44 Multilateral export control system assessment of, 135-149 need for, 51, 121 see also Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls Multinational firms export licenses for exchange of technical data within, 90-91 see also U.S. businesses Munitions national security export controls on, 80 see also U.S. Militarily Critical Technologies List; U.S. Munitions List N National Aeronautics and Space Administration, 36, 74 National Science Foundation, 74 National security export controls adequacy of data to evaluate impact of, 22, 164-165, 176 administrative costs to businesses, 245-247 advantages/benefits of, 8-9, 104, 110, 186, 261-263 adverse effects of, 11, 16, 103-104, 116, 122-126, 153, 157, 191, 247-251, 267, 270-272 assessment of, 103-133 categories bearing competitive costs to U.S., 9, 255 company size differences in administration of, 115-116, 153, 214, 226, 239-242, 244 competitive effects on U.S., 9-12, 19, 55-58, 65, 67, 116-126, 153, 157, 158, 160, 186, 211, 213-214, 222-227, 247-249, 255, 271 compliance with, 12, 100, 107-108, 163-164 cost-benefit assessment of, 9, 22, 104, 120-122, 130, 165, 250-251 country groups of significance, 82, 84-85, 102 n. 15, 189, 259 dimensions of, 70-101 distinction between foreign policy controls and, 19, 25, 158-159, 172-173 East Asian views on, 219-220 economic impact on U.S., 6-7, 9, 30, 120-121, 130, 152, 252-277 electiveness, 15-16, 19-20, 106-110, 152-153, 160 espionage deterrence value of, 45, 51 European views on, 184-202 friction over, 9, 147; see also Reexport controls historical background, 71-75 impact on scientific communication, 19, 127, 159, 162-163, 185, 210 implications of intelligence evidence for, 51-52 Intelligence Community role on, 40, 43, 45, 52 laws mandating, 18, 43, 70, 80-81, 87, 129, 156, 173-174 list of, see CoCom International List; U.S. Control List; U.S. Militarily Critical Technologies List; U.S. Munitions List multilateral, see Coordinating Committee on Multilateral Export Controls; Multilateral export control system on munitions, 80 need for and significance of, 51, 154 penalties for violation of, 92-93, 207-208 product composition of exports affected by, 231-233 purpose, 15, 103, 150-151, 167 recommended thrust of U.S. decision making on, 5, 26-27, 173-177 reduction of, 13, 21, 27, 144, 151, 168-173 scope, 70-101, 116-119, 152-153, 185-186 secrecy orders, 91-92, 127-128, 162 structure of, 75-79 U.S. employment losses due to, 275 U.S. firms affected by, 233-234 U.S. R&D spending losses associated with, 9, 274 U.S. revenue losses from, 11, 267, 270-271 U.S. trade segment covered by, 227-234 U.S.-Soviet bloc trade loss attributable to, 122-123 volume and structure of U.S. trade affected by, 10, 221-222, 251, 257-261 Neutrality Acts of 1935-1939, export restrictions of, 101 n. 4 Newly industrializing countries

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316 INDEX adherence to CoCom requirements, 216-217 adoption of CoCom-like controls, 7, 155 challenges to U.S. technological dominance from, 66-68, 155 compliance with export control policies, 67 diversion of technology through, 5, 207-209, 214, 217 enforcement of export control, 208-209 policies for encouraging high-technology development, 67 technological development of, 30, 32, 203-205 see also Non-CoCom Free World countries; Pacific Rim countries; Third countries; and specific countries Non-CoCom Free World countries adequacy of controls of, 148 automatic licensing of exports to, 87 bilateral export control agreements between U.S. and, 8, 14, 18, 24, 67, 71, 149, 157, 169-170, 199, 212-213 challenges to U.S. technological dominance from, 7, 65-66 competitive disadvantages to U.S. exporters vis-a-vis, 123-124 diversion through, 148, 199, 207-208 export enforcement by, 190-191, 198-199 problems posed by, 191-192 Soviet technology acquisition through, 45, 52 see also Newly industrializing countries; Pacific Rim countries; Third countries; and specific countries North Atlantic Assembly resolution to block U.S. reexport controls, 147 North Atlantic Treaty Organization DoD policy for cooperation with, 194 military strength of, 31-32 relationship with CoCom, 194 p Pacific Rim countries perceptions about PRC, 206 perceptions about Soviet Union, 205-206 role of foreign technology in, 205 technological capabilities, 203-205 see also Newly industrializing countries; Non-CoCom Free World countries; Third countries; and specific countries Patents export of technical data through, 91-92, 127-128 secrecy orders applied to, 91-92, 127-128, 162 U.S. restrictions on filing in Japan, 91 U.S., granted to foreign inventors, 61-63 Penalties exemption from judicial review, 102 n. 7 for violations of export controls, 92-93, 207-208 People's Republic of China (PRC) CoCom policy toward, 99, 109, 137, 188, 209-210 Japanese trade with, 206 licenses required for technical data exports to, 90 Pacific rim countries' perceptions about, 206 trade links with Hong Kong,- 204, 206, 207, 216 U.S. export policy toward, 142, 144, 186, 194, 206, 259 volume of U.S. trade with, 230-231 Policy recommendations on administration of export control system, 131 balance between policy and technical elements of DoD, 27, 175 control of technological commodities, 18, 157, 170 controls on exports to third countries, 23-24, 169 controls on unclassified technical data, 21, 162-163 direction and control of U.S. policy, 2, 22, 161-162, 177 distinction between foreign policy and national security export controls, 19, 25, 172-173 elimination of reexport controls, 14, 25, 171 elimination of unilateral controls, 24, 170-171 high-level industry input into policy formulation, 20, 21, 27, 164, 176 manufacturing equipment/essential technologies, 47 need for licensing data to make, 105 reduction of controlled items, 13, 21, 27, 144, 151, 168-173 removal of controls on West-West trade, 144 strengthening of CoCom, 2, 19, 23-25, 142-143, 159, 168-173, 188, 209 technology transfer within CoCom, 19,

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INDEX 3 17 171-172 thrust of U.S. decision making, 5, 26-27, 173-177 see also U.S. export control policy R Reexport controls countries affected by, 92 on defense articles and service, 80 de minimus requirements for, 189, 210 effectiveness, 158, 252 enforcement by CoCom countries. 123, 139-141 initiation of, 73 lost sales due to, 11, 158, 271 opposition to, 9, 12, 16, 18, 99, 125, 144-147, 149, 154, 158, 186, 187, 192, 194, 195, 199, 210-211, 245 of other Western nations, 99 products affected by, 92 purpose of, 139, 145 recommendation on elimination of, 14, 25, 171 requirements for foreign compliance with, 94-95 tolerance of, 196, 197, 199-200, 212 Reexports CoCom country applications for, 244-246 diversion of technology through, 41, 45 U.S. licenses, 83, 92, 105, 107, 112, 117, 196, 243-246 volume of U.S. trade approved for, 117 Reverse engineering, efficacy of, 5, 47 ,, 108, S Scientific measuring equipment, see Analytic equipment Secrecy orders, as national security export controls, 91-92, 127-128, 162 Semiconductors Malaysian exports of, 205, 218 technological lead in, 63 U.S. exports to Soviet Union, 75 Siberian pipeline embargo, 96, 102 n. 19, 137, 144, 187, 193, 195 Singapore bilateral agreement between U.S. and, 212-213 diversions of technology through, 208, 209 export control by, 209, 217-218 technological capabilities, 204 U.S. export control cyst-em, views on 220 Smuggling, see Diversion South Korea diversion of technology by, 207-208 export control by, 100, 101, 212, 216 technological capabilities, 66, 203-204, 205 technology transfer between Japan and, 204 trade with PRC, 206 views on U.S. export control system, 211-212, 216, 219 Soviet military development civilian scientists involved in, 50 contributions of Western technology to, 45-49 U.S. development compared with, 48 Soviet technology acquisition administrative structure for, 42 channels, 4, 41-45 cost savings from, 46, 110 expenditures, 9, 106 funding and human resources for, 50 intelligence evidence on, 4-5, 40-42, 46 proportion of items subject to national security controls, 42 recommended use of intelligence on, 177 reports of, 46; see also Farewell documents success of, 4, 9, 16-17, 154-155 through non-CoCom Free World countries, 45, 52 U.S. concerns about, 52 see also Diversion; Espionage Soviet Union Pacific rim countries' perceptions about, 205-206 relaxation of U.S. controls on exports to, 75 state of science and technology in, 49-51 and U.S. technological development compared, 5-6, 47-49 U.S. trade loss with, 122-123 Space, technological leadership in, 64 Strategic Defense Initiative, information sharing and coproduction, 146, 185, 198 Sweden export control policies, 199-200 handling of goods in transit, 190, 199 views on U.S. export control system, 199-200, 202 Switzerland, compliance with reexport -requirements, 107

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3~3 INDEX T Technical data adequacy of controls on, 20-21, 162 control within CoCom, 171 - 172 controls, 126-129, 189 definition, 87 East Asian objections to controls on, 211 exchange within multinational firms, 90-91 exemption from disclosure through U.S. Freedom of Information Act, 127 exports through patent applications, 91-92, 127-128 licenses for exporting, 87-92, 117 regulations governing exports, 81, 87-92 restrictions on communication through professional society meetings and publications, 19, 127, 159, 162-163, 185, 210 sensitive but unclassified, restrictions on, 21, 25, 126-127, 162-163 transfers by Japan, 215 Technology transfer between Japan and South Korea, 204 criticism of U.S. limits on, 185, 195-197, 210-211 military, to NATO by U.S., 73, 194 scope of problems with, 4-7, 40-52 U.S., pre-WWII to Japan, 71-72, 101 n. 5 within CoCom, recommendations for, 19, 171-172 Third countries adequacy of controls of, 148 bilateral agreements between U.S. and, 8, 14, 18, 24, 67, 71, 149, 157, 169-170, 199, 212-213 CoCom surveillance of exports to, 139 European views on export control for, 186, 198 recommended restrictions on exports to, 23-24, 109, 169 see also Newly industrializing countries; Non-CoCom Free World countries; Pacific Rim countries; and specific countries Trade barriers, proposed EEC elimination of, 193, 195 Transit trade Hong Kong treatment of, 208, 217 importance in Europe, 190, 198-199 U United Kingdom controls on West-West exports, 140 employment of scientists/engineers, 60, 62 views on U.S. export control system, 192-193, 200 see also Great Britain United States bilateral export control agreements between non-CoCom Free World countries and, 8, 14, 18, 24, 67, 71, 148-149, 157, 169-170, 199, 212-213 challenges to high-technology leadership of, 7, 59-68, 155, 203-204, 205 competitive effects of controls on, 9-12, 19, 55-58, 65, 67, 116-126, 153, 157, 158, 160, 186, 211, 213-214, 222-227, 247-249, 255, 271 computer exports, 114, 117, 124-125, 232, 269 controls on West-West exports, 140 defense expenditures to counter Soviet acquisitions, 110 destinations of high-technology exports from, 230-231 disparities between commercial and military technological development, 56 distribution of foreign sales, 269 economic impact of national security controls, 6-7, 9, 30, 120-121, 130, 152, 252-277 economic importance of exports of, 57-58 employment losses due to national security controls, 275 employment of foreign nationals in R&D, 17, 155-156 employment of scientists/engineers, 60, 62 export control between Canada and, 82, 90,91, 117, 138,230,259 extraterritorial jurisdiction, see Reexport controls global economic interaction of, 56-59 imports of manufactured goods, 57 R&D expenditures, 9, 59-61, 274 reliance on Japanese components, 55 restrictions on filing patents in Japan, 91 revenue losses for West-East exports, 272-274 revenue losses for West-West exports, 266-272

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INDEX 3 19 role of science and technology in postwar defense, 74 and Soviet technological development compared, 5-6, 47-49 trade losses with Soviet bloc, 122-123 trade volume approved for reexports, 117 weapons system development costs, 56 U.S. allies objections of, to U.S. assertion of extraterritorial jurisdiction, 9, 12, 16, 18, 99, 125, 144-147, 149, 154, 158, 186, 187, 192, 194, 195, 199, 211, 245 technological progress of, 64-65 U.S. sanctions against, 96-97 U.S. businesses administrative costs of export controls, 245-247, 264, 266 affected by export controls, 233-234 concerns about handling of license applications, 234-235 export control views and practices, 213-214 high-level input into export policy formulation, 20, 21, 27, 164, 176 voluntary compliance in enforcement of controls, 22, 164 U.S. Control List categories, 81, 231-232 commodity classification descriptions, 81-82 criteria for compiling, 16, 153-154 differences between CoCom List and, 8, 123 integration of MCTL with, 21, 27, 128-129, 163, 176 recommended limits on, 13, 21, 27, 144, 151, 168-173 responsibility for compiling, 72 U.S. Customs Service effectiveness in preventing diversion, 44 export control responsibilities, 8, 43, 93, 96, 131 see also Enforcement of export controls U.S. Department of Commerce export control responsibilities of, 8, 13, 91, 93, 96, 130-131, 133 ineffectiveness of foreign availability program, 132, 156 recommended role in export control process, 26, 174 U.S. Department of Defense controls on unclassified technical data, 21, 126-127, 162-163 Defense Technology Security Administration, functions of, 96, 132 delay in review of foreign availability claims, 14, 132, 156-157, 175-176, 200 export control responsibilities of, 8, 13, 80, 93, 96, 112, 131, 161-162, 175 15-country list, 189, 259 policy for cooperation with NATO, 194 recommended balance between policy and technical elements, 27, 175 U.S. Department of State export control responsibilities of, 80, 93, 130-133 lack of leadership within CoCom delegation, 160 recommended role in export control process, 26, 174 U.S. Export Administration Act of 1979, as amended recommended implementation of, 173-174 scope of export control provisions, 37, 70, 80-81, 129, 175 U.S. Export Administration Amendments Act of 1985 automatic licensing procedure, 87 diversion investigation authority, 43 mandate for decontrol on basis of foreign availability, 18, 156 U.S. Export Administration Regulations complexity of, 8, 21, 111, 113, 163-164 penalties for violations of, 92-93 responsibilities of foreign consignees under, 249 for technical data, 81, 87-92 U.S. Export Control Act of 1949, background and principles, 72 U.S. export control, administration of concerns of U.S. firms about, 234-235 costs to U.S. businesses of, 245-247, 264, 266 company size and, 115-116, 153, 214, 226, 239-242, 244 deficiencies in, 20-22, 160-165, 252 efficiency of, 12-13, 111-116 improvements in, 252 recommendations for improving, 131 regulations governing, 81 responsibility for, 8, 13, 20-21, 70, 80, 91, 93, 96-97, 112, 130-133, 161-162, 175 U.S. export control policy conflicts over direction and control of, 2, 22, 161-162, 177

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320 INDEX considerations influencing, 15-16, 151-152 East Asian views on, 210-212 effect of detente on, 74-75 European views on, 184-202 extraterritorial controls, 145-146; see also Reexport controls foreign policy pressures on CoCom, 144-145 general recommendations for, 4, 22 international cooperation with, 144-148 high-level industry input into, 20, 21, 27, 164, 176 political costs, 146-148 responsibility for formulating, 96-97, 173-174 test of, 147 toward PRC, 142, 144, 186, 194, 206, 259 see also Policy recommendations U.S. export control regime contrasted with foreign control systems, 222 East Asian views on, 210-212, 219-220 efficiency of, 111-116, 191 European views on, 192-197, 200-202 executive branch authority over, 72-73, 93 historical background on, 71-75 improvements in, 132-133 personnel deficiencies, 112, 113, 189 structure of, 7-8, 86-87 see also National security export controls U.S. export licenses/licensing automatic procedure for, 87 availability of data on, 105, 222 certified end user (G-CEU), 83, 148 chronology of lengthy application processing, 114 for CoCom International List exports, 83, 87, 109, 112, 148, 192 for CoCom member nations (G-COM), 83, 87, 109, 112, 148, 192, 233 comprehensive operations license (COL), 90-91 computerization of, 115 delays, 114, 153, 201-202, 210, 213, 235 denials, 242-243, 274 discrimination in, 12, 21, 108-109, 115-116, 214 distribution of, by destination for level of technology, 268; see also Distribution licenses (U.S.) Europeans' concerns about, 189, 191 for exchange of data with multinational firms, 90-91 firm size differences in, 12, 115-116, 153, 214, 226, 239, 242, 244, 252 foreign sales covered by, 257-261 G-DEST, 82, 270 general, 82-83, 87-90, 92 government review of, 78-79 ITADA and ITADR, 25, 87-90, 117, 126, 128, 171 improvements in, 87, 109 individual validated, see Individual validated licenses (U.S.) for militarily sensitive items, 90, 128, 232-233 number of applications, 107, 117 operation and effects of, 221-253 procedures for obtaining, using, and keeping, 111-112 processing times, 12-13, 87, 109, 113, 114, 116, 123, 235-242, 244, 252 project, 83, 229 for reexports, 83, 92, 105, 107, 112, 117, 196, 243-246 returned without action, 241-243 service supply, 83, 229 structure of, 76-79 suspension or revocation of, 92-93 for technical data, 87-92, 117 unnecessary applications, 112-113 U.S. firms' concerns about handling of, 234-235 U.S. Freedom of Information Act, exemption of unclassified data from disclosure through, 127 U.S. Militarily Critical Technologies List (MCTL) export licensing for items on, 90, 128, 232-233 improvements needed in, 13, 129 integration into U.S. Control List, 21, 27, 128-129, 163, 176 use for control of technical data, 127-129 U.S. Munitions List, responsibility for determining, 80 U.S. National Security Council, recommendations for implementing export control policy, 26, 173-174 U.S. Office of Foreign Availability, results of investigations of, 132 U.S. Office of Munitions Control, export control responsibilities of, 80 U.S. Patent and Trademark Office export control functions of, 91

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INDEX 321 see also Patents U.S. Senior Interagency Group on Foreign Policy, 96 U.S. Senior Interagency Group on International Economic Policy, 96-97 U.S. Senior Interagency Group on Transfer of Strategic Technology, 97, 102 n. 20, 131 U.S. Table of Denial Orders, 93 W Walker espionage case, 42 West Germany, see Federal Republic of Germany West-East trade by CoCo-m countries, volume of, 171-173 U.S. revenue losses for, 122-123, 272-274 West-West trade CoCom bulk licenses for, 138 European views of U.S. restrictions on, 184-185 non-U.S. controls on, 140 removal of controls on, 144 U.S. revenue losses for, 266-272 see also Reexport controls; and specific countries