Final Report

Coordinating Review Committee for the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics

Principles and Standards for School Mathematics

Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education

Center for Education

National Research Council

A letter report of the Coordinating Review Committee, prepared for the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics with support from the National Science Foundation.

May 2000



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Final Report: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics Final Report Coordinating Review Committee for the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Principles and Standards for School Mathematics Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education Center for Education National Research Council A letter report of the Coordinating Review Committee, prepared for the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics with support from the National Science Foundation. May 2000

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Final Report: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education (CSMEE), was established in 1995 to provide coordination of all the National Research Council's education activities and reform efforts for students at all levels, specifically those in kindergarten through twelfth grade, undergraduate institutions, school-to-work programs, and continuing education. The Center reports directly to the Governing Board of the National Research Council. This study was conducted by Grant No. ESI-9907187 between the National Science Foundation and the National Academy of Sciences/National Research Council. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this report are those of the members of the committee and do not necessarily reflect the views of the sponsor. Additional copies of this report are available from the Center for Education, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, HA-450, Washington, DC 20418; 202-334-2353 This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.

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Final Report: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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Final Report: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics NCTM/PSSM COORDINATING REVIEW COMMITTEE James Serum (Chair) Viaken Systems, Inc. Isaac Abella, University of Chicago Anne Bartel, SciMath MN Andrew Gleason*, Harvard University Thomas Romberg, University of Wisconsin, Madison Eric Slud, University of Maryland John T. Snow, University of Oklahoma Judith Sowder, San Diego State University Adria Steinberg, Jobs for the Future Marcia Sward, Mathematical Association of America James W. Wilson, University of Georgia Jane Swafford, Senior Program Officer Sonja Atkinson, Administrative Assistant Gail Pritchard, Program Officer** DeVonne Robertson, Administrative Assistant * Member, National Academy of Sciences ** Through January 2000

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Final Report: Principles and Standards for School Mathematics ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: Ed Esty, U.S. Department of Education; Rol Fessenden, L.L. Bean; Deborah Hughes-Hallett, University of Arizona; Sharon McCrone, Illinois State University; Doug McLeod, San Diego State University; Peter Raven, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis; Lynn Steen, St. Olaf University. While the individuals listed above have provided many constructive comments and suggestions, responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the NRC. The following people also attended the open session as guests. The NCTM/PSSM Coordinating Review Committee would like to acknowledge their attendance: Joan Ferrini-Mundy, Shelley Ferguson, Skip Fennell, Jeane Joyner, Glenda Lappan, Gary Martin, Barbara Reys, Jim Sandefur, John Thorpe