TABLE 7-2 Transgenic Technologies Commonly Used in Laboratory Mice



DNA Construct

Desired Effect


DNA microinjection into zygotic pronucleus


Gene of interest with strong promoter

Higher than normal expression

Tissue specific, ubiquitous or inducible promoter


Gene of interest with ectopic promoter

Ectopic expression

Temporal or spatial misexpression

Promoter and enhancer analysis

Regulatory regions driving reporter gene expression

Mapping of regulatory elements

Various reporter genes (e.g., lacZ), green fluorescent protein, luciferase


Endogenous promoter with antisense gene

Reduced expression of endogenous gene


Insertional mutagenesis


Phenotype associated with serendipitous disruption of unknown gene


Gene trapping

Promoterless reporter gene

Expression of reporter gene indicating expression of endogenous gene

Various reporter genes (e.g., lacZ), green fluorescent protein, luciferase

Targeted mutagenesis via homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells


DNA electroporation into embryonic stem cells


Homologous genomic regions flanking selectable marker

Mutation of endogenous gene

Insertion into or deletion of endogenous genomic sequences to produce null (knockout), hypomorph, or dominant negative mutations

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001

Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement