TABLE 8-1B Databases for Assessing Toxicity, Susceptibility, and Chemical Exposure in Human Populations


Human Developmental Outcomes Database

Human Genome and Genetic Polymorphism Database

Biomarker Database for Exposure, Effect, and Susceptibility

Human Gene-Environment Interactions Database

Experimental description

Human epidemiology and surveillance databases relevant for birth-defects research will be linked for morphological and functional impacts.

Profiling of human populations for polymorphisms of developmentally relevant genes, such as those encoding DMEs, signaling components, and stress-response components.

Link human biomarkers of exposure, susceptibility, and effect for development.

Detailed investigation of genotype-environment interactions for toxicant effects on development.


Identify, characterize, and link human databases: case reports, active and passive birth defects surveillance databases, post-market surveillance databases, link with chemical exposure and toxicity databases, link with known genetic birth defects syndrome databases, link with human genome project.

Prioritize human genomic profiling for genes encoding components of pathways relevant to developmental toxicity, i.e., DMEs, molecular-stress pathways, cell-cell signaling pathways and developmentally relevant signal pathways.

Improved understanding of critical signaling pathways should allow for improved linkage of chemically induced early cell biological effects with impacts on development (organogenesis and behavior).

Knowledge about susceptibility biomarkers such as DMEs, signaling components, and developmentally critical systems will allow for linkage of susceptibility biomarkers with birth defects.

Identification of critical interactions between genes and environment, e.g., additivity of defects of several signaling components in determining toxicant sensitivity.

Risk assessment information

Linkage of relevant databases, improved hazard identification, improved surveillance.

Understanding of basic genetic variability across human populations.

Identification of potential susceptibility genes relevant for development.

Improved biomarkers and improved understanding of biomarker data in risk assessment.

Characterization of susceptibility profiles for human developmental toxicants.

Identification of variability in the susceptibility of human populations for birth defects from environmental factors.

Improved quantitative information.

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