Appendix A

Acceptable daily intake (ADI)

An estimate of the daily exposure dose that is likely to be without deleterious effect even if continued exposure occurs over a lifetime.

A/D ratio

The ratio of the adult toxic dose to the developmentally toxic dose.


A gene’s representation on one chromosome.

Benchmark dose (BMD)

An alternative approach to the NOAEL approach that uses all experimental data to fit one or more dose-response curves.


The study of how to most efficiently manage and utilize vast amounts of genomic sequence data.

Biological markers (biomarkers)

Indicators signaling events in biological systems or samples (NRC 1989). There are three classes of biomarkers—exposure, effect, and susceptibility. A marker of exposure is an exogenous substance or its metabolite(s) or the product of an interaction between a xenobiotic agent and some target molecule or cell that is measured in a compartment within an organism. A marker of effect is a measurable biochemical, physiological, or other alteration within an organism that, depending on magnitude, can be recognized as an established or potential health impairment or disease. A marker of susceptibility is an indicator of an

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