Nucleotide segment that codes for amino acids.
Expressed sequence tag (EST)
A DNA sequence complementary to a known piece of transcribed RNA.
An approach to identify a particular gene starting with some knowledge about a mutant phenotype.
The systematic and comprehensive analysis of gene products, including mRNAs and proteins.
The fundamental units of heredity carried by DNA.
The mRNA resulting from transcription of a gene and the protein translated from the mRNA.
The production of a mutation in a specific “target” gene using molecular biological techniques.
The study of the genetic composition of organisms.
An organism’s genetic makeup (i.e., its DNA sequence).
A region of the homeotic genes that is highly conserved among several species, including Drosophila, frogs, and mammals. The homeobox sequence encodes a DNA-binding motif of the encoded protein that is a transcription factor.
Crossing over between two identical or homologous strands of DNA.
Human Genome Project
A federally funded initiative to sequence and identify (HGP) all human genes. HGP also involves studying the genome of a number of organisms other than humans, including insects, fish, plants, and other mammals.
A strain of mice that has been inbred by brother-sister matings for more than 20 generations, and consequently all the individuals of the strain are more than 98% genetically identical.
DNA sequence between exons that is transcribed but not translated
A mutation that leads to the loss of function of a particular gene. Also called a null mutation.