genetic factors, general, 153-195, 180, 223-224, 234-235

genomics, 4, 5, 8, 13, 14, 15, 92, 97, 101, 104, 106, 114-115, 123, 127-128, 143, 153, 155-157, 159-160, 163, 168, 169, 171, 172, 182, 195, 209, 216, 217-218, 227, 233, 292

historical perspectives, 11, 12, 35, 113-114, 115, 120-121, 123, 145-146, 151-152, 153, 161-163

mechanism-based toxicity results, 6-7, 63, 65, 70, 73-81 (passim), 195, 198-199, 225, 227

methylmercury, 75

musculoskeletal system, 34, 180

retinoids, 77

reverse genetics, 94, 156-157, 287

single-celled organisms, 151-152

bacteria, 151, 158, 163, 174, 176, 193, 204, 227

yeast, 14-15, 41, 92, 93, 94-97, 114, 143, 151-152

toxicokinetics, 42, 44-47

valproic acid, 82

see also Knockout mutations;

Mouse and rat models;

Nonmammalian models;

Sensitization;

Transgenics

Antiarrhythmic drugs, 72

Anticonvulsants, 23, 73, 80

diphenylhydantoin, 4, 23, 66, 73-74, 87, 102-103, 210

valproic acid, 23, 46, 48, 60, 82-83, 85-86

Apoptosis, 8, 61, 52, 71, 77-78, 83-84, 87, 134, 139, 140, 180, 189, 231, 302

Aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase, 53

Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), 65, 80-82, 106, 182

Autism, 18, 84-86

B

Bacteria, 114, 158, 163, 174, 176, 193, 204, 227

bacteriophages, 110, 151, 210

genomics, 93, 143

transfection, 174, 193-195, 205

Basic Local Alignment Search Tool, 115, 293

Behavioral assays, 113, 180-181, 185-186, 187, 190, 200, 207, 209

Behavioral factors, see Life-style risk factors

Benchmark dose, 40, 54, 55-56, 281

Benzo[a]pyrene, 28, 51, 53, 63

Bioinformatics, 15, 99-100, 214-215, 216

defined, 281

see also Databases

Biologic Markers in Reproductive Toxicology, 49

Biomarkers, 49-54, 202, 242

carcinogenesis, 51-52, 215

databases, 214-215

defined, 49-50, 53, 214, 281-282

dose and, 50, 214, 215

effect, 49, 51, 52, 53, 214, 215, 281

birth weight, 1, 18, 34, 40, 52, 74

exposure, 42, 49, 50-52, 53, 214, 281

functional deficits, 51, 214

gene expression and regulation, 51, 52, 214

placental, 52, 53

smoking, 51, 52, 53

susceptibility, 49, 50, 53-54, 214, 215, 281-282

see also Drug-metabolizing enzymes

Biotechnology, see Genetic engineering

Bipolar disorder, lithium, 23

Birth weight, 1, 18, 34, 52

dose-response, 40

methotrexate, 74

Brain, 130, 133, 135, 145-146

alternatives to testing pregnant mammals, 33

autism, 85

mental defects, 1, 18, 19, 23

methylmercury, 74-75

neural tube defects, 19, 23, 48, 52, 62-63, 82, 84, 144

retinoids, 76, 79

C

Caenorhabditis elegans, 14-15, 63, 101, 104, 113, 114, 123, 124, 143, 150, 152-153, 154, 156-161 (passim), 163, 167, 178-182, 191, 195, 216, 224, 178-182, 206-207, 226, 231, 234, 293, 297-298, 300, 303

genomics, 14-15, 88, 93, 94, 101, 104, 195, 216, 226, 234

Cancer and carcinogenesis, 48, 133, 134, 209, 213, 217, 234

Ames test, 176-177

biomarkers, 51-52, 215

DES, 73



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