methotrexate, 74

ovarian cancer, 32, 33

Cancer Genome Anatomy Project, 98, 217, 294

Cardiovascular system, 17, 18, 23, 130, 132, 133, 145

antiarrhythmic drugs, 72

retinoids, 77-78

Case-control studies, 38

Case series, 37

Cell cultures, 3, 6, 7, 12, 28-34, 77, 192-195, 197, 198, 200, 204, 205, 237

methylmercury, 75

retinoids, 78

Cell death, see Apoptosis

Cell differentiation, 12, 19, 64, 99, 101, 109, 112, 124, 127, 128, 129, 149-150

animal models, 149, 150, 152, 168, 185

retinoids and, 79-80

risk assessment, 33, 52, 224, 228-229

stem cells, 32, 111, 172, 173-174, 283

see also Organogenesis

Cell proliferation, 4, 14, 28, 32, 33, 34, 52, 64, 66, 71, 87, 148, 149, 228

see also Cancer and carcinogenesis

Cell-to-cell signaling, 4, 5, 6-7, 8, 13, 14, 16, 87, 111-112, 126-136, 143, 149-150, 158-159

history of developmental biology, 110, 111

in vitro models, 30

organogenesis, 144, 146

see also Checkpoint pathways;

Molecular-stress pathways;

Receptor-mediated actions;

Signaling pathways;

Transduction

Cellular processes, general, 14, 28-29, 64, 65-71, 86, 88, 109-113, 143, 185, 222, 225

apoptosis, 8, 61, 52, 71, 77-78, 83-84, 87, 134, 139, 140, 180, 189, 231, 302

cleavage, 72, 83-84, 109, 116, 140, 170, 228

cytochrome P450, 66, 74, 80, 104, 293

epidermal cells, general, 142, 146

epidermal growth factor, 63, 81, 179

eukaryotic, 93, 127, 138, 139, 143, 152, 161, 192, 193, 194, 283

history of developmental biology, 109-110, 111

methylmercury, 75

stem cells, 32, 111, 172, 173, 283

transduction, 14, 16, 55, 71, 72-73, 84, 86-87, 126, 150, 151, 237, 294

transfection, 174, 193-195, 205

transplantation technologies, 109. 111

see also Bacteria;

Gene expression and regulation;

Genetic factors, general;

Intracellular signaling;

Molecular-stress pathways;

Oocytes;

Receptor-mediated actions;

Secretion and secretory processes;

Signaling pathways;

Yeast;

Zygotes

Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 211

Central nervous system, 23, 109, 132, 149, 187, 190

autism, 84

fetal alcohol syndrome, 103

methylmercury, 74

retinoids, 76, 79

see also Brain

Cerebral palsy, 18

Checkpoint pathways, 7, 8, 16, 25, 75, 87, 127, 136-141, 152, 185, 189, 204, 208-209, 225, 227, 228, 229, 231, 233, 235, 238, 239, 241, 295, 231, 233, 235, 238, 239, 241, 295, 296, 302

Chickens, 33, 58-59, 125, 153, 216, 292

Chromosomes, 7, 17, 19, 20, 88, 93, 122, 139, 160, 161-162, 163, 168, 170

see also Genomics

Cleavage, 72, 83-84, 109, 116, 140, 170, 228

Clefting, see Oral clefting

Clinical trials, 37

Cloning, 13, 86, 94, 97, 111, 115, 153-157 (passim), 159-166 (passim), 168, 169, 173, 174, 176, 183, 184, 186, 192, 193

Cmax see Peak threshold concentration

CNS, see Central nervous system

Cohort studies, 37-38

Computer applications

extrapolation from animal models to humans, 242

forward genetics, 156

genetics, general, 157

see also Bioinformatics;

Databases;

Internet

Connective tissue, 23, 145, 148

cystic fibrosis, 106, 153

fibroblasts, 145, 176, 185, 193

Convulsions, see Anticonvulsants

Cost factors, see Economic factors



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