TABLE 3-1 Systems Proposed as Alternatives to Pregnant Mammals to Test for Developmental Toxicitya

System

End Point Monitored

References

Mammalian embryos ex utero

 

Rodent whole-embryo culture

Morphogenesis

Webster et al. 1997

Rodent embryonic organ culture: limb; palate

Morphogenesis

Kochhar 1982; Abbott et al. 1992

Sub-mammalian embryos

 

Avia: Chick embryotoxicity test (CHEST)

Morphogenesis

Peterka and Pexieder 1994

Amphibia: Frog embryo test (FETAX)

Morphogenesis

Fort et al. 1998

Fish: Mekada, zebrafish

Morphogenesis

Herrmann 1993

Arthropods: Cricket, artemia, Drosophila

Morphogenesis

Walton 1983; Sleet and Brendel 1985; Lynch et al. 1991

Flatworms: Planaria

Morphogenesis

Best and Morita 1991

Echinoderms: Sea urchin

Morphogenesis

Graillet et al. 1993

Coelenterates: Hydra

Regeneration

Johnson et al. 1988

Protista: Slime mold

Morphogenesis

Tillner et al. 1996

Cell cultures—primary

 

Micromass (limb or mid-brain, rodent or chick embryo)

Differentiation

Flint 1993

Human amniotic and chorionic villus

Stress response

Honda et al. 1991

Human placental explants

Proliferation, differentiation

Genbacev et al. 1993

Drosophila embryo

Differentiation

Bournias Vardiabasis 1990

Chick embryo: neural retinal, neural crest, brain

Differentiation

Reinhardt 1993

Cell cultures—established lines

 

Mouse ovarian tumor

Attachment

Braun et al. 1982

Human embryo palatal mesenchyme

Proliferation

Zhao et al. 1995

Neuroblastoma

Differentiation

Kisaalita 1997

V79/HEPM

Communication

Toraason et al. 1992

Pox virus in infected cells

Viral replication

Keller and Smith 1982

HELA

Proliferation

Freese 1982

EC cells

Differentiation

Hooghe and Ooms 1995

ES lines

Differentiation

Spielmann et al. 1997

a The reference given for each system is the most recent available, or one that will lead into the appropriate literature. Italicized systems are those still in active use in 1998.



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