Receptor (official namea)

Endogenous Ligands

Developmentally Toxic Ligand and Modifier

Typical Effects

Recent References

Hedgehog Receptor


Sonic, Desert, and Indian Hedgehogs

Veratrum alkaloids: cyclopamine (mechanism unclear)

Cyclopia, holoprosencephaly

Incardona et al. 1998; Cooper et al. 1998


Endothelin receptors A and B

Endothelins 1, 2, and 3

Antagonists: L-753, 037, SB-209670, SB-217242

Craniofacial, thyroid, cardiovascular, intestinal aganglionosis (Hirschsprung’s disease)

Spence et al. 1999; Treinen et al. 1999; Gershon 1999a,b

Cation Channels



Potassium ion

Inhibitors: almokalant, dofetilide, d-sotalol

Digit, cardiovascular, orofacial clefts

Webster et al. 1996; Wellfelt et al. 1999

aNuclear Receptors Committee 1999.

bAlso, five α reductase inhibitors (e.g., finasteride) affect prostate and external genitals (Clarke et al. 1993).

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