Recommendation. The U.S. Air Force should continue to strengthen its activities on human-machine science related to the design and development of UAVs. Research should be pursued in the following key areas:

  • integration of human-machine systems into the design process, including (1) the optimal and dynamic allocation of functions and tasks and (2) determination of the effects of various levels of automation on situational awareness

  • human performance, including (1) the investigation of human decision-making processes, (2) the development of methods to define and apply human-performance measures in system design, and (3) the enhancement of force structure through improved methods of team interaction and training

  • information technologies, including (1) the determination of the effects of human factors on information requirements and presentation and (2) the development of enhanced display technologies to improve the human operator’s ability to make effective decisions

CHAPTER 3 Aerodynamics

Recommendation. The U.S. Air Force should focus aerodynamic research on the following areas to maximize the benefit to future UAVs:

  • boundary-layer research focused on issues important to UAVs, including (1) transition prediction with (three-dimensional) pressure gradients, Reynolds numbers, and Mach numbers typical of UAV flight conditions and (2) improved flow modeling with part-chord natural laminar flow

  • techniques for real-time flow sensing and actuation

  • design architectures for complex multidisciplinary problems, including highly integrated systems

  • aeroelastic analysis and design approaches, especially for very flexible, unrestrained, actively-controlled aircraft

  • novel vehicle control concepts, including flow control

  • exploitation and modeling of unsteady, nonlinear, three-dimensional aerodynamics

  • design concepts for very low Reynolds numbers, including steady and unsteady systems

  • aerodynamic modeling concepts for designing vehicle control systems

CHAPTER 4 Airframe Materials and Structures

Recommendation. To support the development and introduction of probabilistic methods for UAVs, the U.S. Air Force should sponsor research on (1) analytical

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