Click for next page ( 153


The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page 152
References Aiken, L. R., Jr. 1970 Attitude towards mathematics. Review of Educational Research 40:551-596. Alexander, Kern 1985 Costs of Precollege Mathematics and Science Programs: Analysis and Potential Use for Resource Allocation. Paper prepared for the Committee on Indicators of Precollege Education in Science and Mathematics, National Research Council. American Association for the Advancement of Science 1985a Biology textbooks. Scicnec Books er Films 20~5~:245-286. 1985b Project 2061: Education for a Changing Future: Phase I. What understanding of science and technology will be important for everyone in tomorrow's world? Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1986a Chemistry textbooks. Science Books ~ Filnu 21~5~:249-293. 1986b Physics textbooks special. Scicr~cc Books ~ Filmy 22~1) :1-28. American Chemical Society 1984 Tomorrow: The Report of the Task Force for the Study of Chemistry Education in the United States. Washington, D.C.: American Chemical Society. American Institute of Physics (AIP) 1983 Salaries. AIP pub. no. R-311.01. Manpower Statistics Division. New York: American Institute of Physics. 152

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES 153 Anderson, C. W. 1985 Science Testing Programs and the Improvement of Teaching. Pa- per presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Ill. Anderson, C. W., and Smith, E. L. 1983 Children's Conception of Light and Color: Developing the Con- cept of Unseen Rays. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal. Anderson, J. R., Boyle, C. F., and Reiser, B. J. 1985 Angoff, W. H. 1984 , _ ., Intelligent tutoring systems. Science 228:450-462. Scales, Norms, and Equivalent Scores. Princeton, N.J.: Educa- tional Testing Service. Armor, David, et al. 1976 Ar~olysie of the School Preferred Reading Program in Selected Log Angela Minority Schools. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation. Assessment of Performance Unit 1974- Science Report for Teachers: 1-5. Department of Education and 1975 Science, Welsh Office; Department of Education for Northern Ireland. Distributed by Garden City Press Limited, Letchworth, Hertfordshire SG6 HIS, Great Britain. Ausubel, D. B. 1968 Education Psychology: A Cogrutioc View. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Barr, Rebecca 1985 A Sociological Analysis of the Influence of Class Conditions on Mathematics Instructions. Paper presented at the annual meet- ing of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago. Available from the National College of Education, Evanston, Ill. Barrows, H. S., Norman, G. R., Neufeld, V. R., and Feightner, J. W. 1982 The clinical reasoning of randomly selected physicians in general medical practice. Clinical and Ir~vc~tigatioc Medicine 5:49-55. Becker, Henry Jay 1986 Instructional uses of school computers. Reports from the 1985 National Survey 1:1-12. Available from Center for Social Organi- zation of Schools, Johns Hopkins University. Begle, Edward G. 1979 Critical Variables in Mathematics Education. Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America and National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Bell, A. W., Costello, J., and Kuchemann, D. 1983 A Review of Research ire Mathematical Education. Windsor, Berks. United Kingdom: NFER-Nelson. Berliner, David C. 1978 Allocated Time, Engaged Time, and Academic Learning Time in Elementary Mathematics Instruction. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, San Diego, Calif.

OCR for page 152
154 REFERENCES Berman, Paul, and McLaughlin, Milbrey W. 1974- Federal Programs S~porting Educational Change. 8 Vols. Prepared 1975 for U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation. Bloom, Benjamin S. 1976 Human Characteristics and School Learning. New York: McGraw Hill. The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group in struction as effective as one-to-one tutoring. Educational Research 13:4-16. Blumberg, Fran, Epstein, Marion, MacDonald, Walter, and Mullis, Ina 1986 A Pilot Study of Higher-Order Thinking Skills Assessment Tech- niques in Science and Mathematics: Final Report. Parts 1 and 2. ME~G-84-2006-P4. Princeton, N.J.: National Assessment of Educational Progress. Bransford, J., Sherwood, R., Vye, N., and Rieser, J. 1986 Teaching thinking and problem solving: Research foundations. American Psychologist 41:1078-1089. Brophy, Jere E. 1986 Teacher influences on student achievement. American F7~ychologi~t 41 :1069-1077. Brophy, Jere E., and Good, Thomas L. 1986 Teacher behavior and student achievement. In Third Handbook of Research on Teaching, edited by M. C. Wittrock, 328-375. New York: Macmillan. Brown, J. S., and Burton, R. R. 1978 Diagnostic models for procedural bugs in basic mathematical skills. Cognitinc Scicnec 2:123-146. Brown, J. S., and VanLehn, K. 1980 Repair theory: A generative theory of bugs in procedural skills. Cognitive Scicnec 4:379-426. Brownell, William A. 1947 The place of meaning in the teaching of arithmetic. Elementary School Journal 47(January):256-265. Bruner, Jerome S. 1960 1984 1966 The Process of Education. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Towards a Theory of Instruction Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. Bryk, Anthony S., Holland, Peter B., Lee, Valerie E., and Carriedo, Ruben A. 1984 Effcetivc Catholic School`: An Exploration. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Catholic Education Association. Burkhardt, Hugh 1986 The Languayc of Functions and Graphs. London: Joint Matriculation Board Shell Centre for Mathematical Education, University of Nottingham. Burton, Richard R., and Brown, John S. 1979 An investigation of computer coaching for informal learning ac- tivities. International Journal of Man-Machinc Stucco 11:5-24.

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES 155 Byrne, C. J. 1983 Teacher Knowledge and Teacher Effectiveness: A Literature Re view, Theoretical Analysis and Discussion of Research Strategy. Paper presented at the meeting of the Northwestern Educational Research Association, Ellenville, N.Y. Cain, G. C., and Watts, H. W. 1970 Problems in making inferences from the Coleman Report. Amer- ican Sociological Review 31:228-242. California Department of Education 1984 ScicnecFFamework Addendum. Sacramento: California Department of Education. Carey, Neil 1986 Instructional Indicators in an Educational Monitoring System: Alternatives and Recommendations. Working draft prepared for the National Science Foundation. WD-2919/4-NSF. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif. Carley, M. 1981 Social Measurement and Social Indicators. London: George Allen and Unwin. Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy 1986 A Nation Prepared: Teachers for the Blat Century. Report of the Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. New York: Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy. Catterall, James S. 1986 Resource Indicators and Social Commitment to Education. Working draft prepared for the National Science Foundation. WD-2919/8-NSF. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif. Cavana, G. R., and Leonard, W. H. 1985 Extending discretion in high school science curricula. Science Education 69~5~:593-603. Cavin, Edward S. 1986 A Review of Teacher Supply and Demand Projection by the U.S. Department of Education, Illinois, and New York. Paper prepared for the Panel on Statistics on Supply and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathematics Teachers, Committee on National Statistics, National Research Council. Available from Mathematica Policy Research, Inc., Princeton, N.J. Charters, W. W., Jr. 1970 Some factors affecting teacher survival in school districts. Amer- icar~ Educational Research Journal 7~1~:1-27. Chi, M. T. H., Feltovich, P. J., and Glaser, R. 1981 Categorization and representation of physics problems by experts and novices. Cog nitioc Scicnec 5:121-152. Chipman, S. F., Brush, L. R., and Wilson, D. M., eds. 1985 Women and Mathematics: Balancing the Equation. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Clancey, W. J. 1979 Tutoring rules for guiding a case method dialogue. International Journal of Man-Machinc Studies 11:25-49.

OCR for page 152
156 REFERENCES Cohn, E., and Riew, J. 1974 Cost functions in public schools. Journal of Human Resource (3~:422-434. Coleman, J. S., Campbell, E. Q., Hobsen, C. J., McPartland, J., Mood, A., Weinfield, F. D., and York, R. T. 1966 Equality of Educational Oppo~un*y. Washington, D.C.: U.S. De- partment of Health, Education, and Welfare. Committee on Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education 1985 Mathematics, Science, and Tcchr~ology Education: A Research Ager~da. Available from the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Interdisciplinary Research in Mathematics, Scicr~cc, and Technology Education. Available from the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences 1983 The mathematical sciences curriculum K-12: What is still fun damental and what is not. In Educating Americana for the Ist Century: Source Materials. National Science Board Commission on Precollege Education in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. 1987 Confrey, Jere 1985 A Constructivist View of Mathematics Instruction: A Theoret ical Perspective. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Ill. Connecticut State Department of Education 1985 Teacher Supply and Demand in Conuccticut. April 4, 1985. Hartford: Connecticut State Department of Education. Connell, J. P. 1985 A new multidimensional measure of children's perceptions of control. Child Dcoclopmcnt 56:1018-1041. Connell, J. P., and Ryan, R. M. 1984 A development theory of motivation in the classroom. Teacher Education Quarterly 11~4) :64-77. Cooley, W., Bond, L., and Mao, B. J. 1981 Analyzing multi-level data. In Educational Evaluation Methodology, edited by R. Berk. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. Council of Chief State School Officers 1984 Education Evaluation and Asscesmer~t in the United States. Position Paper and Recommendations for Action. Washington, D.C.: Council of Chief State School Officers. Cronbach, L. J., and Meehl, P. E. 1955 Construct validity in psychological tests. Psychological Bulletin 52:281-302. Cronbach, L. J., and Snow, R. E. 1977 Aptitudes and Instructional Methods: A Handbook for Research on Interaction. New York: Irvington. Crosswhite, F. Joe 1972 Corrclatce of Attitudes Toward Mathematics. National Longitudinal Study of Mathematical Abilities Report No. 20. Pasadena, Calif.: A. C. Vroman.

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES 157 Crosswhite, F. Joe, Dossey, John A., Swafford, Jane O., McKnight, Curtis C., and Cooney, Thomas J. 1985 Second International Mathematics Study Summary Report for the bruited States. Champaign, Ill.: Stipes. Darling-Hammond, Linda 1984 Beyond the Commission Reports: The Coming Crisis in Teaching. Report No. R-3177-RC. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation. Darling-Hammond, Linda, and Hudson, Lisa 1986 Indicators of Teacher and Teaching Quality. Working Draft prepared for the National Science Foundation. WD-2919/5-NSF. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif. Darling-Hammond, Linda, Haggstrom, Gus, Hudson, Lisa, and Oakes, Jeannie 1986 A Conceptual Framework for Examining Staffing and Schooling. Draft report prepared for the Center for Education Statistics. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif. deGroot, A. D. 1965 Thought and Choice in Chess. The Hague: Mouton. Denham, Carolyn, and Lieberman, Ann, eds. 1980 Time to Learn. Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education. Diekoff, G. M. 1983 Testing through relationship judgments. Journal of Educational Psychology 75:227-233. Dienes, Z. P., and Golding, E. B. Approach to Modem Mathematics. New York: Herder and Herder. 1971 Druva. Cynthia A., and Anderson, Ronald D. , . , 1983 Science teacher characteristics by teacher behavior and by student outcome: A meta-analysi~ of research. Journal of Research in Scicnec Teaching 20~5~:467-479. Eberts, Randall W., and Stone, Joe A. 1984 Unions and Public Schools. Lexington, Mass.: Lexington Books. Egan, D., and Schwartz, B. 1979 Chunking in recall of symbolic drawings. Memory and Cognition 7:149-1 58. Embretson (Whitley), S. 1983 Construct validity: Construct representation versus nomothetic span. Psychological Bulletin 93:179-197. Ericsson, K. A., and Simon, H. A. 1984 Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Evertson, C., Anderson, D., Anderson, L., and Brophy, Jere 1980 Relationships between classroom behaviors and student outcomes in junior high mathematics and English classes. American Educa- tional Research Journal 17:43-60. Flanagan, John C., and Cooley, William W. 1966 Project Talent Onc-Ycar Follow-Up Studies. Pittsburgh: School of Education, University of Pittsburgh. Flowers, A. 1984 Preparation of teachers: Myths and realities. In Teacher Shortage in Scienec and Mathematics: Myths, Rcalitic~ and Research, edited by J. L. Taylor. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education.

OCR for page 152
158 1984 REFERENCES Fraser, Barry S., Welch, Wayne W., and Walberg, Herbert J. 1986 Using secondary analysis of national assessment data to identify predictors of junior high school students' outcomes. Thc Alberta Journal of Educational Rc~carch 32~1~:37-50. Frederiksen, C. H. 1975 Representing logical and semantic structure of knowledge ac quired from discourse. Cogr~itioc Psychology 7:371-485. Frame Construction in Children' Discourse Communication. Pa per presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, August. Cognitive models and discourse analysis. In Written Communi cation Annual, Vol. t: Linguistic Approaches to the Study of Written Discourse, edited by C. R. Cooper and S. Greenbaum. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications. Frederiksen, C. H., Frederiksen, J. R., and Bracewell, R. H. 1985 Discourse analysis of children's text production. In -Writing in Real Time, edited by A. Matsuhasi. New York: Longmans. Frederiksen, J. R. 1982 A componential theory of reading skills and their interactions. In Advance in the Psychology of Human Iniclligencc, edited by R. J. Sternberg. Vol. 1. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. 1985 Frederiksen, N. 1984a The real test bias: Influences of testing on teaching and learning. American Psychologist 39:193-202. 1984b Implications of cognitive theory for instruction in problem solv ing. Review of Educational Research 54:363-407. 1986 Construct validity and construct similarity: Methods for use in test development and test validation. Multivariatc Behavioral Research 21:3-28. Frederiksen, N., and Ward, W. C. 1978 Measures for the study of creativity in scientific problem soldering. Applied Psychological Measurement 2:1-24. Freeman, R. B. 1976 Thc Overeducated American. New York: Academic Press. Freudenthal, Hans 1983 Major problems of mathematics education. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Congrc~e of Mathematical Education, edited by Marilyn Zweng, Thomas Green, Jeremy Kilpatrick, Henry Pollak, and Marilyn Suydams. Boston: Birkhauser. Gagn{, R. M. 1965 Gardner, P. L. 1975 Attitude measurement, a critique of some recent research. Edu- cation Research 7:101-109. Gentner, D., and Gentner, D. R. 1983 Flowing water or teeming crowds: Mental models of electricity. In Mental Model`, edited by D. Gentner and A. L. Stevens. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Thc Conditions of Learning. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Glaser, Robert 1984 Education and thinking: The role of knowledge. American P~y- chologist 39(2):93-104.

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES 159 Goertz, Margaret 1986 State Educational Standards: A 50-State Survey. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Goertz, Margaret E., Ekstrom, Ruth B., and Coley, Richard J. 1984 The Impact of State Policy on Erdranec Into the Tcaching Profession. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Goldstein, I. 1980 Developing a computational representation for problem-solving skills. In Problem Solving and Education: Induce in Tcaching and Research, edited by D. T. Tuma and F. Reif, 53-79. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Goldstein, Paul 1978 Changing the American Schoolbook. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath. Good, Thomas L. 1983 Recent classroom research: Implications for teacher education. In Essential Knowiedgc for Beginning Educators, edited by D. C. Smith. Washington, D.C.: American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education. Good, Thomas L., and Grouws, Douglas 1979 The Missouri mathematics effectiveness project: An experimental study in fourth grade classrooms. Journal of Educational Psychology 71~3~:355-362. Good, Thomas L., and Weinstein, Thona S. 1986 Schools make a difference: Evidence, criticisms, and new direc- tion~. American Psychologist 41~10~:109~1097. Goodlad, John I. 1984 A Place Called School. New York: McGraw-Hill. Greenburg, David, and McCall, John 1974 Teacher mobility and allocation. Journal of Human Rc~owccs 9(Fall)4:480-502. Gulliksen, H. 1950 Theory of Mental Scats. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Haggstrom, Gus W., Darling-Hammond, Linda, and Grissmer, David W. 1986 Assessing Teacher Supply and Demand. Draft report prepared for the Center of Education Statistics. Rand Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif. Hanford, George H. 1986 Some caveats on comparing SAT scores. Education Week October 8:20. Hanushek, Eric A. 1972 Education and Race. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath. Harms, Norris C., and Yager, Robert E., eds. 1981 What Research Says to the Scicnec Teacher. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. Harris, C. W. 1963 Problems in Measuring Change. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press. Hayes-Roth, B. 1977 Evolution of structures and processes. Psychological Review 84:260- 278.

OCR for page 152
160 REFERENCES Hein, George E. In The assessment of science learning in materials-centered science press education programs. Scicr~cc arid Children Hilton, Peter 1986 Current trends in mathematics and future trends in mathematics education. In The Monitoring of School Mathematics: Background Papers, edited by Thomas A. Romberg and Deborah M. Stewart. Vol. 1. Madison: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin. Holmes Group Consortium 1984 New Standards for Quality in Teacher Education. Proposal to the Secretary's Discretionary Program/U.S. Department of Education, the Ford Foundation, and the Carnegie Corporation of New York. College of Education, Michigan State University. Horn, Elizabeth A., and Walberg, Herbert J. 1984 Achievement and interest as functions of quantity and level of instruction. Journal of Education Research 77~4~:227-232. Hueftle, Stacey J., Rakow, Steven J., and Welch, Wayne W. 1983 Images of Science: A Summary of Results from the 1981-82 National Assessment ire Science. Minneapolis: Minnesota Research and Evaluation Center. Hurd, Paul DeH., Robinson, James T., McConnell, Mary C., and Ross, Norris M., Jr. 1981 The Status of Middle School and Junior High School Science. Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, Colo. Husen, Torsten 1967 International Study of Achieoemer~t in Mathematics: A Comparison of Twelve Countries. Vols. I and II. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Illinois State Board of Education 1983 The Supply and Demand for Illinois Mathematics and Science Teachers. Springfield: Illinois State Board of Education. Institute for Research in Social Behavior 1984 University of California Faculty Time-Use Study. Report for the 1983-1984 Academic Year. Oakland, Calif.: Institute for Research in Social Behavior. Jacobson, Willard J. 1985 National Report: U.S.A. Second International Science Study. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Jaques, Elliott 1956 Measuremer~t of Responsibility. London: Tavistock Publication. Reprinted in 1972 as Mca~uremcnt of Rcspon~ibil*y: A Study of Work, Payment, arid Individual Capacity. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Joint Committee on Geographic Education 1984 Guidelirzes for Geographic Education. Washington, D.C.: Association of American Geographers. Jones, Lyle V., Davenport, Ernest C., Jr., Bryson, Aloha, Bekhuis, Tanja, and Zwick, Rebecca 1986 Mathematics and science test scores as related to courses taken in high school and other factors. Journal of Ed?lcatior~al Measurement 23~3~:197-208.

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES 161 Juster, F. Thomas, and Stafford, Frank P., eds. 1985 Time, Goods, and Wcll-being. Ann Arbor, Mich.: Survey Research Center, Institute for Social Science, University of Michigan. Klein, Margarete S., and Rutherford, F. James 1985 Scicncc Education in GloW Pcrspectioc: Lessons from Five Countries. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. Knapp, Michael S., et al. 1987 Opportunities for Strategic Inuc~tmcnt in K-~ Scicncc Education: Op tion~ for the National Scienec Foundation. Summary Report; Vol ume 1: Problems and Opportunities; Volume 2: Groundwork for Strategic Investment. SRI Project No. 1809. Menlo Park, Calif.: SRI International. Kuhs, Therese, Schmidt, William, Porter, Andrew, Floden, Robert, Freeman, Donald, and Schwille, John 1979 A T`u:onomy for Classifying Elementary School Mathematics Content. East Lansing, Mich.: The Institute for Research on Teaching, Michigan State University. Kulm, Gerald 1980 Research on mathematics attitude. In Research in Mathematics Education, edited by Richard J. Shumway. Reston, Va.: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. Kyllonen, P. C. 1986 Thcory-Ba~cd Cognitive A`scs~mcnt. Brooks Air Force Base, Tex.: Air Force Systems Command. Langbein, L. I., and Lichtman, A. J. 1978 Ecological Infcrcncc. Sage University Papers on Quantitative Ap plications in the Social Sciences, Series 07-010. Beverly Hills, Calif.: Sage Publications. Larkin, J. H. 1979 Information processing models and science instruction. In Cog nitivc Process Instruction, edited by J. Lochhead and J. Clement. Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press. Larkin, J., McDermott, L., Simon, D. P., and Simon, H. A. 1980 Expert and novice performance in solving physics problems. Scienec 208:1335-1342. Lefcourt, H. M., VonBaeyer, C. L., Ware, E. E., and Cox, D. J. 1979 The multi-dimensional-multiattributional causality scale: The development of a goal specific locus of control scale. Cana~an Journal of Behavioral Scicncc 11~4):286-304. Levin, Henry M. 1980 Educational production theory and teacher inputs. In The Anal- ~i~ of Educational Productivity: Issue in Microanalysis, edited by C. E. Bidwell and D. M. Windham. Vol. 2. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. Lightfoot, Sara L. 1983 The Good High School: Portraits of Character and Culture. New York: Basic Books. Lindquist, E. G. 1954 The Iowa electronic test processing equipment. In 1958 Inuita- tioru~l Confcrenec on misting Problems, 16~168. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service.

OCR for page 152
162 REFERENCES Linn, Robert L. 1986 Educational testing and assessment: Research needs and policy issues. American Psychologist 41 (10~:1153-1160. Lord, F. M. 1980 Application of Item-Rc~pon~c Theory to Practical Tcating Problems. Hill~dale, N.J.: Erlbaum. Lord, F. M., and Novick, M. R. 1968 Statistical Theories of Mental Scat Scorcs. Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley. Malone, T. W. 1981 Toward a theory of intrinsically motivating instruction. Cognitive Scicnec 4:333-369. Manski, Charles F. 1985 Academic Ability, Earnings, and the Decision to Become a Teacher: Evidence from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Working Paper No. 1539. National Bureau of Economic Research, Cambridge, Mass. Mason, Ward S. 1985 Indicators of Federal Investment in Precollege Science, Math- ematice, and Technology Education. Paper prepared for the Committee on Indicators of Precollege Science and Mathematics Education, National Research Council. Mathematical Sciences Education Board 1987 Annual Report of the Mathematical Sciences Education Board. Available from the National Research Council, Washington, D.C. McDermott, Lillian C. 1984 Research on conceptual understanding Today July:24-32. 13 n mechanics. Physics McKnight, Curtis C., Crosswhite, F. Joe, Donkey, John A., Kifer, Edward, Swafford, Jane O., Travers, Kenneth J., and Cooney, Thomas J. 1987 Thc Underachicuing Curriculum: Acing U.S. School Mathematics from an International Pcrspectioc. Champaign, Ill.: Stipes. McLean, Les 1985 Drawing Implications of Instruction from Item, Topic and Classroom-Level Scores in Large-Scale Science Assessment. Pa per presented at the annual meeting of American Educational Research Association, Chicago, Ill. McLeod, D. B. 1986 Affective Influences on Mathematical Problem Solving. Paper prepared for the Conference on Affective Influences on Mathe- matical Problem Solving, San Diezo, Calif.. May 28-30. Medrich, Elliot, Rorsin, Judith, Rubin, Victor, and Buckle, Stuart 1982 Thc Serious Business of Grouting Up: A Study of Childrcn's Liocs Outside of School. Berkeley: University of California Press. Messick, Samuel J. 1975 The standard problem: Meaning and values in measurement and evaluation. American Psychologist 30:955-966. Thc Effcctiocnc`s of Coaching for the SAT: Review and Reanalysis of Research from the Fistic to the FTC. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. 1980

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES 163 Messick, S., Beaton, A., and Lord, F. 1983 National A~`e~`ment of Educational Progress Reconsidered A New Design for a New Era. Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service. Meyer, D. E., and Schvaneveldt, R. W. 1976 Meaning, memory structure, and mental processes. Science 192:27-33. Miller, Jon D. 1983 Scientific literacy: A conceptual and empirical review. Dacdalw 112~2~:29-48. 1986 Scientific Literacy in the United States. Paper presented at a symposium on Communicating Science to the Public, London. Available from Northern Illinois University. Munby, Hugh 1983 Thirty studies involving the Scientific Attitude Inventory: What confidence can we have in this instrument? Journal of Research in Science Teaching 20~2) :141-162. Murnane, Richard J. 1975 Impact of School Resources on the Learnirlg of Inner City Children. Cambridge, Mass.: Ballinger. 1981 Interpreting the evidence on school effectiveness. Teachers College Record 83~1~:19-35. Understanding teacher attrition. Harvard Educational Review. press Murnane, Richard J., and Phillips, Barbara R. 1981 Learning by doing, vintage, and selection: Three pieces of the puzzle relating teaching experience and teaching performance. Economic of Education Review 4(Fall) :453-465. Naishitt, J. 1982 Megatrcnd~: Ten New Directions lFansormir~g Our Lives. New York: Warner Books. National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 1982 Graduates may lack tomorrow's "basics." NAEP Newsletter 15:8. 1987 Learning by Doing. A Manual for Teaching and Assessing Higher- Order Thinking in Science and Mathematics. Princeton, N.J.: National Assessment of Educational Progress. National Center for Education Statistics 1981 A Capsule Description of High School Students: A Report on HIgh School and Beyond, A National Longitudinal Study for the 1980~. Prepared by Samuel S. Peng, William B. Fetters, and Andrew J. Kolstad. Supt. of Doc. No. 0-729-575/2100. Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. Hash School Seniors: A Comparative Study of the Clauses of 1972 and 1980. Prepared by William B. Fetters, Jeffrey A. Owings, and George H. Brown. Supt. of Doc. No. 065-000-00204-3. Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. The Condition of Education" Prepared by Valena W. Plisko and Joyce D. Stern. Supt. of Doc. No. NCES 85-402. Available from 1984 1985

OCR for page 152
164 REFERENCES the U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) 1987 Commission will develop NCTM standards for school mathemat- ics. News Bulletin 23~3~:3. National Science Resources Center 1986 National Conference on the Teaching of Science in Elementary Schools. Summary. Available from the National Science Re- sources Center, National Academy of Sciences-Smithsonian In- stitution, Washington, D.C. National Science Teachers Association 1983- Focus on Excellence. Vol. 1~1-5~. John E. Penick et al., eds. 1984 Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. New York State Education Department 1983 Teachers in New York State 1968 to 1982. State University of New York, State Education Department, Information Center on Education, Albany. Newell, A., and Simon, H. A. 1972 Human Problem Soltnr~g. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall. Norman, G. R., Muzzin, L. J., Williams, R. G., and Swanson, D. B. 1985 Simulation in health sciences education. Journal of Instructional Development 8:1 1-17. Northwest Evaluation Association 1986 A Handbook for Science Curriculum Development: Using the Science Curriculum Planning Matrix. Oregon Department of Education, Salem. Northwestern Endicott Report 1985 Thirty-ninth Annual Report. Prepared by Victor R. Lindquist. Number and Average Monthly Salaries for New Graduates by Field and Degree, 1984 and 1985. Evanston, Ill.: Northwestern University. Oakes, Jeannie 1986 Educational Indicators: A Guide for Policymaker~. OPE-01. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation. Osborne, R. J., and Wittrock, M. C. 1983 Learning science: A generative process. Science Education 67:489 508. Owen, D. 1985 None of the Above: Behind the Myth of Scholastic Aptitude. New York: Houghton Mifflin. Panel on Statistics on Supply and Demand for Precollege Science and Mathe matics Teachers 1987 Toward Understanding Teacher Supply and Demand Prsoritic~ for Research and Development. Interim Report. Available from the Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Patel, V., and Frederiksen, C. H. 1984 Cognitive processes in comprehension and knowledge acquisition by medical students and physicians. In lariat in Problem-Ba~cd Learning, edited by H. G. DeVolder and H. Schmidt. Assen, Netherlands: VanGorcum.

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES 165 Penick, John E., ed. 1983 Focus on Exccilenec. Vol. 1, No. 2. Elementary Science. Washing- ton, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. Penick, John E., and Yager, Robert E. 1983 The search for excellence in science education. Phi Delta Kappan 64(8):621-623. Peterson, Penelope 1979 Direct instruction reconsidered. In Research on Tcachir~g, edited by P. Peter and H. J. Walberg. Berkeley, Calif.: McCutcheon. Piaget, Jean 1954 The Construction of Reality in the Child. New York: Basic Books. Popham, W. H. 1983 Measurement as an instructional catalyst. In New Directions for locating and Mca~uremerd: Measurement, Tcchr~ology, and Individuality in Education, edited by R. B. Ekstrom, 19-30. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Preece, P. F. 1976 Mapping cognitive structure: A comparison of methods. Journal of Educational Psychology 68:1-8. Purkey, Stewart C., and Smith, Marshall S. 1983 Effective schools a review. Elementary School Journal 83~4~:426- 452. Raizen, Senta A. 1987 Assessing the quality of the science curriculum. In Forum86: The Science Curriculum. Washington, D.C.: American Association for the Advancement of Science. Raiz en, Senta A., and Jones, Lyle V., eds. 1985 Indicators of Precollege Education in Science and Mathematics. A Preliminary Renew. Committee on Indicators of Precollege Sci ence and Mathematics Education, National Research Council. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Rasch, G. 1960 Probabilistic Models for Some Intclligenec and Attair~mcnt mists. Copen h~n Nielson & Lvdicke (for Denmark's Paedago`riske Insti o tute). Reggia, J. A., Perricone, B. T., Nan, D. S., and Peng, Y. 1985 Answer justification in diagnostic expert systems- Part I: Abduc- tive inference and its justification. IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering BME-32:263-272. Reiser, B. J., Anderson, J. R., and Farrell, R. G. 1985 Dynamic Student Modeling in an Intelligent Tutor for LISP Programming. Proceedings from the 1985 International Joint Conference on Artificial Intelligence, Los Angeles, Calif. Research Triangle Institute 1985 1985 National Survey: Science and Mathematics Education. Teacher Questionnaire. Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, N.C. Resnick, D. P., and Resnick, L. B. 1985 Standards, curriculum, and performance: A historical and com- parative perspective. Educational Researcher 14:5-20.

OCR for page 152
166 REFERENCES Resnick, Lauren B. 1983 Mathematics and science learning: A new conception. Scicnec 220~4~:477-478. 1987 Education and Learning to Think. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. Robinson, W. S. 1950 Ecological correlations and the behavior of individuals. American Sociologic~Rcmew 15:351-357. Rock, Donald A., Ek~trom, Ruth B., Goertz, Margaret E., and Pollack, Judith M. 1985 Determinants of Achievement Gain in High School. Briefing paper for U.S. Department of Education and the National Center for Education Statistics. Educational Testing Service, Princeton, N.J. Romberg, Thomas A. 1983 A common curriculum for mathematics. In Individual Diffcrcnce~ and the Common Curriculum: Eighty-Sccond Yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education, 121-159. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1986 Measures of Mathematical Achievement: Problems and Influ ences. Paper prepared for the National Conference on the Inilu ence of Testing on Mathematics Education, University of Califor nia at Los Angeles. Available from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Romberg, Thomas A., and Carpenter, T. P. 1986 Research on teaching and learning mathematics: Two disciplines of scientific inquiry. In Third Handbook of Research on Teaching, edited by Merlin C. Wittrock. New York: Macmillan. Rosenholtz, S. J. 1985 Effective schools: Interpreting the evidence. American Journal of Education 93:352-388. Rowe, Mary Budd 1979 Externality and Children's Problem Solving Strategies. Paper prepared under NIMH grant no. ROlMH 25229. Available from the University of Florida, Gainesville. Science education: A framework for decision makers. Dacd~tu 112~2~:123-142. 1983 Sarason, Seymour B. 1985 The school as a social situation. Annual Renew of Psychology 36:1 15-140. Schalock, Del 1979 Research on teacher selection. In Renew of Research in Education 7:364-417. Schlechty, Phillip C., and Vance, Victor S. 1983 Recruitment, selection, and retention: The shape of the teaching force. Elementary School Journal 83~4):469-487. Schneider, W., and Shiffrin, R. M. 1977 Controlled and automatic human information processing: I. De- tection, search, and attention. Psychological Review 84:1-66.

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES 167 Schoenfeld, Alan H. 1982 Measures of problem-solving performance and of problem-solving instruction. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 13:31-49. Schvaneveldt, R. W., Durso, F. T., Goldsmith, T. E., Breen, T. J., and Cooke, N. M. 1985 Measuring the structure of expertise. International Journal of Mam Machine Studies 23:699-728. Schwartz, Judah L. 1983 Thc Semantic Calculator U~cr's Manual. Newton, Mass.: Education Development Center, Inc. Schwartz, Judah L., and Yerushalmy, Michal 1985 Thc Geometric Supporter. Apple II computer programs developed by Education Development Center, Inc. Pleasantville, N.Y.: Sunburst Communications, Inc. Seligman, M. E. P. 1975 Hclplc~nc~. San Francisco: Freeman. Shavelson, Richard J. 1972 Some aspects of the correspondence between content structure and cognitive structure in physics instruction. Journal of Educa tional Psychology 63:225-234. Methods for examining representations of a subject matter struc ture in a students memory. Journal of Research in Scicnec Tcaching 11 :231-249. The Measurement of Cognitive Structure. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research A~so ciation, Chicago. Shiffrin, R. M., and Schneider, W. 1977 Controlled and automatic human information processing: II. Perceptual learning, automatic attending, and a general theory. Psychological Review 84:127-190. Shymanski, James A., Kyle, William C., Jr., and Alport, Jennifer M. 1983 The effects of new science curricula on student performance. Journal of Research in Scicnec Tcaching 20~5~:387-404. 1974 1985 Simon, H. A. 1974 How big is a chunk? Scicnec 183:482-488. Simon, H. A., and Chase W. G. 1973 Skill in chess. American Scientist 61:394-403. Sizer, Theodore 1984 Horacc's Compromise: Thc Dilemma of the American High School. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Skinner, B. F. 1953 Scicnec and Human Behavior. New York: Macmillan. 1968 Thc Tcchnologyof Tcaching. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. ~ v , Sleeman, D., and Brown, J. S., eds. 1982 Intelligent Ho ring Systems. New York: Academic Press. South Carolina Department of Education 1986 State Scicnec Obicctiocs: Grades I-~. Columbia: The South Car- olina Department of Education.

OCR for page 152
168 REFERENCES Stake, Robert E., and Easley, Jack A., Jr. 1978 Case Studies in Science Education. NSF S~78-74. Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: Na- tional Science Foundation. Stevens, A., Collins, A., and Goldin, S. E. 1979 Misconceptions in students' understanding. International Journal of Man-Machinc Studies 11:145-156. Stevenson, Harold W., Lee, Shin-Ying, and Stigler, James W. 1986 Mathematics achievement of Chinese, Japanese, and American children. Scicr~cc 231:693-699. Stipek, D. J., and Weiss, J. R. 1981 Perceived personal control and academic achievement. Review of Educational Research 51~1) :101-137. Summers, Anita A., and Wolfe, Barbara L. 1977 Do schools make a difference? Americar~ Economic Review 67~4~:639- 652. Suydam, Marilyn N. 1984 Aeecesing Achieuemcnt Across the States: Mathematical Strength, and WcaJcncs~c~. Report No. SE 045 289. Columbus, Ohio: ERIC (clearinghouse for Science, Mathematics and Environmental Ed- ucation. Taylor, John R. 1984 A physicist's view of school science. Outlook 51(Spring):20-35. Thorndike, Edward L. 1932 The Fundamentals of Learning. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University. Reprinted in 1966 as Human Learning. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Toffler, Alvin 1980 The Third Wauc. New York: Morrow. Traub, R. E., and Fisher, C. W. 1977 On the equivalence of constructed-response and multiple-choice tests. Applied Psychological Mca~uremcnt 3:355-369. Travers, Kenneth J., McKnight, Curtis C., and Dossey, John A. 1985 Mathematics achievement in U.S. high schools from an interna- tional perspective. Bulletin. National Association of Secondary School Principals, November 1985:55-63. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare 1969 Toward a Social Report. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. U.S. General Accounting Office 1984 New Directions for Federal Programs to Aid Mathematics and Scienec Teaching. Report No. GAO/PEMD-84-5. Washington, D.C.: U.S. General Accounting Office. van Dijk, T., and Kintsch, W. 1984 Strategical of Ducour~c Comprehension. New York: Academic Press. Vernon, P. E. 1962 The determinants of reading comprehension. Educational and Psychological Mca`uremer~t 22:269-286.

OCR for page 152
REFERENCES Virginia Department of Education 169 ~ 11 ,l5 1~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .~ 1986 Scicnec Education Program A~sc~smer~t Model: Rcsourec Guide. Avail- able from Virginia Department of Education, Richmond, Va. Walberg, Herbert J. 1984 Improving the productivity of America's schools. Educational Leadership 41~8~:19-30. Walberg, Herbert J., and Rasher, Sue Pinzar 1986 Synthesis of research on teaching. In Third Handbook of Research ore Teaching, edited by Merlin C. Wittrock. New York: Macmillan. Walberg, Herbert J., Fraser, Barry S., and Welch, Wayne W. 1986 A test of a model of educational productivity among senior high school students. Journal of Educational Research 79~3~:133-139. Walker, Decker F., and Schaffarsick, Jon 1974 Comparing curricula. Journal of EducationalRc~carch 44(Winter): 83 - 111. Ward, W. C. 1982 A comparison of free-response and multiple-choice forms of verbal s~;~,A ~ talc:` c A nailed P~'l~hnlonical Meauaremer~t 6:1 - 12. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ v _ ~ ~ _z-I' ~ ;~ ~ _ Ward, W. C., Frederiksen, N., and Carlson, S. 1980 Construct validity of free-response and multiple-choice versions of a test. Journal of Educatior~al Measurement 17:11-29. Watts, D. M., and Gilbert, J. K. 1983 Enigmas in school science: Students' conceptions for scientifically associated words. Research ire Scicnec and Technology Education 1~2~:161-171. Webb, N. M., Herman, J. L., and Cabello, B. 1986 Diagnosing students' errors from their response selections in language arts. Journal of Educational Mca~uremer~t 23:163-170. Weber, M. B. 1978 The effect of learning environment on learner involvement and achievement. Journal of Teacher Education 28 (6) :81-85. Weiss, Iris S. 1978 Report of the 1977 National Survey of Science, Mathematics and Social Stucco Education. Prepared for the National Science Foundation. Supt. of Doe. No. 083-000-00364-0. Available from the U.S. Government Printing Office. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation. Weiner, B. 1979 A theory of motivation for some classroom experiences. Journal of Educational Psychology 71:3-25. Welch, Wayne W. 1983 Research in science education: Review and recommendations. In Teacher Shortage in Scicr~cc and Mathematics: Myths, Realities arid Rc~carch, edited by John L. Taylor. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Education. A science-based approach to science learning. In Research Within Reach: Science Education, edited by David Holdzkom and Pamela Lutz. Washington, D.C.: National Science Teachers Association. 1985 Measuring Student Performance in Science: Trends and Issues. Unpublished paper. Available from the Institute for Student Assessment and Evaluation. University of Florida, Gainesville. 1984

OCR for page 152
170 REFERENCES Welch, Wayne W., Anderson, Ronald E., and Harris, Linda J. 1982 The eRects of school on mathematics achievement. American Educational Research Journal 19~1) :145-153. White, Barbara Y. 1983 Designing computer games to help physics students understand Newton's laws of motion. Cognition and Instruction 1:69-108. Wildavsky, A. 1979 Speaking Ruth to Power: Thc Art and Craft of Policy Analyst. Boston: Little, Brown. Wiley, David E., and Harnischfeger, Annegret 1974 Explosion of a myth: Quantity of schooling and exposure to instruction, major educational vehicles. Educational Researcher 3~43:7-12. Wilks, S. S. 1962 Willson, V. L. 1983 A meta-analysis of the relationship between science achievement and science attitudes: Kindergarten through college. Journal of Research in Science Teaching 20~9) :839-850. Wise, Arthur E., Darling-Hammond, Linda, and Berry, Barnett 1987 Effcctinc Teacher Sclectior~ From Recruitment to Retention. Report No. R-3562-NIE/CSTP. Santa Monica, Calif.: Rand Corporation. Wolf, Richard M. 1977 Acheuemerd in America. New York: Teachers College Press. Womer, F. B. 1981 State-level testing: Where we have been may not tell us where we are going. In New Directions for inciting and Mca~uremcnt: inciting in the Statcs: Beyond Accountability, edited by D. Carlson, 1-12. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Wooton, William 1965 SMSG: Thc Making of a Curriculum. New Haven: Yale University Press. Zabalsa, Antone, Turnbull, Philip, and Williams, Gareth 1979 Thc Economics of Teachers Supply. Cambridge, England: Cam- bridge University Press. Zarinnia, E. Anne, and Romberg, Thomas A. 1986 A new world view and its impact on school mathematics. In Thc Monitoring of School Mathematics: Background Papers, edited by Thomas A. Romberg and Deborah M. Stewart. Vol. 1. Madison: Wisconsin Center for Education Research, University of Wisconsin. Mathematical Statistics. New York: John Wiley & Sons. Zarkin, Gary 1985 Occupational choice: An application to the market for public school teachers. Quarterly Journal of Economics 100(May):409 416.