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Index A Accuracy of information in achievement tests on science, 178 in curriculum, 13, 125, 137-138, 139, 140 Achieved curriculum, 121 Achievement tests multiple-choice, as indicator of student learning, 40-50 on science, 48-49, 175-180 high-quality, characteristics of, 178-1 79 panel on review of, 176, 180 . . . scores on, ana socioeconomic background of students, 31-32 Activities in-school of students, 77-79, 81-82 of teachers, 105-108 out-of-school of students, 79-80, 82-83 of teachers, 103-105 Actual or implemented curriculum. Scc Implemented curriculum Agencies federal, financial support of science and mathematics education, 4, 14, 144-149 209 local education financial support of science and mathematics education, 143-144, 148-149, 186-187 summary of meetings with, 189-196 national scientific, support of science and mathematics education, 4, 14, 149-151 state education. See State education agencies Aggregation of data, 31-33, 199 and ecological fallacy, 31-32 inconsistent, 33 levels of, 31, 32 self-selection in, 33 American Association for the Advancement of Science, 120, 149, 203 American Chemical Society, 203 support of science and mathematics education, 149-150 American College Testing Program, 33 American Geological Institute, 150 American Institute of Biological Sciences, 150 American Institute of Physics, 149

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210 American Mathematical Society, 149 Anthropology, in study of education, 23 Army Alpha tests, in World War I, 42 Assessment Center of the Council of Chief State School Officers, 39, 66 Attitudes of students toward science and mathematics, 75-76, 84-85 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 187, 194-195 participants in colloquium on, 173 research and development recommendations on, 85 Attribution of success, and sense of fate control, 86-87 Automaticity of processing speed, measures of, 56 Autonomy sense of students, 88 B Balanced incomplete block design of tests, 50 Behavior and outcome of schooling, 22, 23-26 of students, 2, 3, 7-9, 29, 73-89. Sac Teachers, time use studies on; Time use studies Biases, in panel assessments, 38 British Assessment of Performance Unit Series, 5, 53, 64 C California assessment of student attitudes in, 187 state guidelines on curriculum in, 127, 128, 140, 182-183, 204 student testing in, 185 California Assessment Program, science content of, 177 Canada, curriculum guidelines in, 133 Carnegie Forum on Education and the Economy, 91, 93-94, 138 INDEX Center for Education Statistics, 39, 69, 201, 202, 206, 208 Center for Policy Research in Education, 199 Center for the Study of Evaluation, 199 Certification of teachers, testing for, 109, 110 Civic literacy in mathematics, 21 Classroom instruction time on science and mathematics. See Instructional time on science and mathematics Coaching of students on achievement tests, 45-46 computerized systems in, 60 Collection of data on indicators, 35-39. SAC ~80 Data on indicators, collection of College Board Advanced Placement Tests, 5, 64 College education of teachers collection of data on, 95-96, 102 entrance examinations in, 109 as indicator of teaching quality, 10, 95-96, 100, 102, 109 and salaries, compared with other college graduates, 113-117, 118 College Placement Council, data on salaries of teachers, 117 Colloquium on indicators of precollege science and mathematics education, 171-174 Comparable data, collection of, 35-36 on salaries of teachers and other occupations, 113-117 Compensatory education for disadvantaged children, 146-147 Competence, student perception of, 88 Competency testing of students, 46-47 of teachers, 97-98, 101, 102, 108-1 10 Comprehensive Tests of Skills, science content of, 17 Computers affecting mathematics curriculum, 131-132

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INDEX in assessment of problem-solving skills, 60-61 in assessment of student learning, 52, 53-54, 184, 185 on physical laws, 59-60 on procedural knowledge, 60-61 and processing speed, 56 improving student learning, 53-54, 60 in simulations of scientific experiments, 54, 59-60 Conceptual knowledge, assessment of, 55-61, 63 of adult population, 71 on internal representations of problems, 58-60 on organization of knowledge in memory, 57-58 Conference Board of the Mathematical Sciences, 128, 131 Connectedness, student perception of, 88 Connecticut, study of newly hired teachers in, 100 Constraints influencing teacher and student behavior, 24-26 in curriculum, 119, 125 Content coverage of curriculum, 12, 13, 124, 125, 127-135 depth of, 125, 136-137, 139, 140 expert panels in assessment of, 132-133 frequ en cy of ens essm ent, 1 34 , 1 3 5 on mathematics, 13~132 state guidelines on, 133 teacher reporting of, 13, 134, 135 in tests, 133 on science, review of, 175-180 in textbooks, 128-129, 133 Coordination of data collection strategies, 38-39, 206-208 Correlation coefficients, aggregation of data affecting, 31-32 Council of Chief State School Officers, 39, 66, 140-141, 200, 201 Course enrollment data, 2, 7, 77-78, 79 recommendations on, 81 Creative thinking, exclusion of, in multiple-choice tests, 43-44 211 Cultural literacy in mathematics, 22 Current projects on indicators, 197-205 Curriculum, 2, 3, 12-14, 119-142 accuracy of information in, 13, 125, 137-138, 139, 140 achieved, 121 computers affecting, 131-132 content coverage of, 12, 13, 124, 125, 127-135 definition of, 120-123 depth of topic treatments in, 125 indicators of, 136-137, 139, 140 development of indicators on, 203-204 expert panel in assessment of, 132-133, 137, 139, 140 frameworks for, 12, 127-132, 182, 191, 192, 204 national, 141, 182 recommendations on, 134-135 frequency of assessment of, 134, 135 by grade clusters, 122-123, 128, 129, 135 homework time as measure of, 127 implemented or actual. Sac Implemented curriculum incentives and constraints in, 119, 125 instructional time as measure of, 126-127 intended. Scc Intended curriculum key indicators on, 12-13, 135, 140 on mathematics frameworks for, 130-132 state guidelines on, 128, 129 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 182-183, 191-192 models of excellence in, 139 number of science and mathematics courses taken as measure of, 126 pedagogical quality of, 13, 14, 125, 138, 139, 140 research and development recommendations on, 12, 13, 14, 134-135, 139, 140 response of teachers to changes in, 106, 108 role of teachers in planning and shaping, 26

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212 on science frameworks for, 132 state guidelines on, 132 spiraled, 125 state guidelines on, 12,13,121, 27, 128-129,132, 135, 182-183, 204 depth of topic treatments in, 137 implications of indicators for, 140-142 teacher reporting of, 13, 134,135 tests in, 122,128-129,135,141-142 content coverage of, 133,175-180 depth of topic treatments in, 137 scientific accuracy of, 137 tests influencing, 46~48 textbooks as part of, 12,13, 121-122, 135, 141 depth of topic treatments in, 137 measures of content coverage in, 128-129,133 scientific accuracy of, 137 types of indicators on, 124-126 users of indicators on, 123-124 D Data on indicators aggregation of, 31-33,199 collection of, 35-39 on college education of teachers, 95-96,102 of comparable and unexpected information, 35-36 coordination of strategies in, 38-39,206-208 depth of information in, 35-36 expert panels in, 36-38 on federal financial support of science and mathematics education, 145-149 frequency of, 36 on implemented curriculum, 134 improvements in, 200-201,202 multiple-choice achievement tests in, 40-50 on salary of teachers, 115-116 on scientific and mathematical literacy of adults, 69-71 on subject-matter knowledge of teachers, 99-100 INDEX on time use of teachers, outside of classroom, 104 on working conditions in schools, 111-112 Department of Education current projects funded by, 199, 202 report on indicators, 198 Disadvantaged children, compensatory education for, 146-147 Discretionary tasks in learning science and mathematics, 88 District level of data aggregation, 31, 32 E Ecological fallacy, in aggregation of data, 31-32 Economics, in study of education, 23 Education for All Handicapped Children Act, 146 Education Consolidation and Improvement Act, 146 Education for Economic Security Act of 1983, 146 Educational Testing Service, 77, 198-199, 201 Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, 46 Elementary/Secondary Integrated Data Systems program, 207, 208 Engagement in learning science and mathematics, 88 Enrollment data on science and mathematics courses, 2, 7, 77-78, 79, 81 Equality of educational opportunity, 23 in curriculum, 141 Essay tests, as learning indicator, 51-53 Examinations. Sac Testing Excellence in science and mathematics in curriculum, models of, 139 distribution of, 26 Expectations of students, 88 Expert panels, in assessment procedures, 36-38

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INDEX biases of, 38 on curriculum, 132-133, 137, 139, 140 rater variability in, 37-38 on science achievement tests, 176, 180 validity and reliability of, 38 F Fate control, sense of, 86-87 Feasibility of indicators, 35 Federal financial support of science and mathematics education, 4, 14,144-149 agency budgets in, 146-147,148 categories of funding in, 146,147, 148 collection of data on, 145 supplementary indicator on, 148 Financial support of mathematics and science education, 143-151 federal, 4,14,144-149 budgets of agencies, 146-148 local, 143-144, 148-149,186-187 meeting with state education agencies on, 186-187 participants in colloquium on, 174 from scientific organizations, 149-151 budgets, 149-151 state, 148-149,186-187 traditional measures of, 143-144 Florida, student testing in, 46, 185, 193 Frameworks, curriculum, 12, 127-132,182,191, 192,204 development of, 129-132 on mathematics, 13~132 national, 141,182 recommendations on, 134-135 on science, 132 France, curriculum in, 133,182 Free-response tests in assessment of adult scientific and mathematical literacy, 71, 72 as indicator of student learning, 51-53 compared with multiple-choice tests, 43-44 recommendations on, 64 213 validity of, 62-63 Frequency of data collection, 36 G Global assessment procedures of student learning, 51-54 Government federal financial support of science and mathematics education, 4, 14,144-149 state education agencies. See State education agencies Graduate Record Examinations, 52, 199 Graduation requirements, state guidelines on, 187 Great Britain, curriculum quality in, 182 H Habits of mind, scientific and mathematical, 18-19, 75, 76, 85-89, 187 research and development recommendations on, 89 Handicapped children, education of, 145, 146 Hands-on instruction, 5, 53, 64 quality of teaching in, 107, 108 High School and Beyond Longitudinal Survey, 177, 199 Holmes Group Consortium, 91, 93, 138 Homework on science and mathematics teacher correction of and feedback on, 106 time spent on, 4,8,80,82 as curriculum indicator, 127 recommendations on, 82 Human affairs, role of science in, 19-20 Hypothesis formulation testing, 5, 51-52, 64 I Ideational fluency, 44

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214 Illinois mathematics curriculum in, 128 study of newly hired teachers in, 100 Implemented curriculum, 121, 122 assessment of, 122, 129, 134, 135 collection of data on, 134 compared with mandated curriculum, 25-26 scientific accuracy of, 137-138 Incentives influencing teacher and student behavior, 24-26 in curriculum, 119 salary as, 113-117 Indicators of science and mathematics education, 27-39 aggregation of data on, 31-33 collection of data on, 35-39 current projects on, 197-205 definition of, 27-29 feasibility of, 35 interpretation of, 29-34 key, 2-3, 29 scale of, 33-34 supplementary, 2, 4, 29 users of, 34-35, 123-124 variables affecting, 30 In-school activities of students, 7-8, 77-79, 82 recommendations on, 81-82 of teachers, 105-108 Instructional time on science and mathematics, 7-8, 78-79, 81-82 as behavior indicator, 7-8 as curriculum quality indicator, 126-127 minutes of, 78, 81-82 student use of, 78-79, 82 teacher use of, 105-106, 11~111 as teaching quality indicator, 92 Intended curriculum, 121-122 assessment of, 121-122, 127-129, 135 compared with actual curriculum, 25-26 depth of topic treatments in, 137 140 scientific accuracy of, 137, 140 Internal representations of problems, assessment of, 58-60 INDEX International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, 5, 53, 64, 85, 124, 134 science content in tests of, 177 Interpretation of indicators, 29-34 Item banks for student tests, 185-186, 192-193 Item-response theory on multiple-choice tests, 48, 50 J Japan curriculum quality in, 133, 182 mathematics education in, 124 K Key indicators of science and mathematics education, 2-3, 29 curriculum quality, 12-13, 135, 140 student behavior and learning, 2-3, 6-9, 65, 72, 81-82 teaching quality, 9-10, 11-12, 102, 118 Knowledge of subject-matter of teachers. See Teachers, subject-matter knowledge of L Laboratory facilities of school, 111, 112, 118 influencing student and teacher behavior, 25 Leadership of scientific organizations in education, 4, 14, 149-151 Learning in science and mathematics, indicators of, 2, 3, 4-7, 40-72 theoretical basis of, 23 Literacy, scientific and mathematical, 2, 3, 6-7, 15-22, 67-72 collection of data on, 69-71 conceptual knowledge in, 71 dimensions of, 16-22 importance of, 67 levels of, 20-21

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INDEX mathematical, 20-22 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 187,194 participants in colloquium on, 173-174 recommendations on assessment of, 72 scientific, 16-20 target populations for assessment of, 69 Local education agencies financial support of science and mathematics education, 143-144, 148-149,186-187 results of meeting with representatives of, 189-196 Long-term memory, organization of knowledge in, 57-58 M Mandated curriculum, compared with actual curriculum, 25-26 Materials and supplies, instructional, 4, 111-112,118 as curriculum quality indicator, 12, 13 influencing teacher and student behavior, 25,26 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 186-187, 193 as teaching quality indicator, 11, 25,111-112,118 Mathematical Association of America, 149 Mathematical Sciences Education Board, 128 Matrix sampling, 49-50,185 Meetings with state and local education agencies, summaries of, 181-196 Memory organization of knowledge in, assessment of, 57-58 retrieval of information from, assessment of, 58 Minnesota, student testing in, 185 Minority science and mathematics teachers, 109 215 Models of schooling education production function, 23 input-output, 74-75,91-93 process-product, 91-92 students and teachers as key actors, 23,91-92 Motivation of students, 75-76,84-85 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 187, 194-195 participants in colloquium on, 173 Multiple-choice tests, 40-50 balanced incomplete block design of, 50 coaching of students on, 45-46 comparison of results on over time 50 criticisms of, 41-49 as economical measure, 49 free-response tests compared with, 43-44 influence on curriculum, 46-48 item sampling of, 49-50 lack of creative thinking in, 43-44 as learning indicator, 40-50, 63 real-life problems compared to, 44 science content of, 48-49, 175-180 statistical analysis of, 50 theoretical basis of, 48 Museum visits, out-of-school, 80,82 N National Academy of Sciences, 46, 149 National Assessment of Educational Progress, 30, 199,202,206,208 assessment of student attitudes, 84, 85 on decline of student performance, 46,47 surveys of, 69, 77 test materials of, 5,50,53,64,177 National Center for Education Statistics, 202 National Commission on Excellence in Education, 197 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, 128,203 National curriculum frameworks, 141,182 National Defense Education Act, 146

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216 National Education Longitudinal Study, 101, 201, 202-203 National leadership in science and mathematics education, 4, 14, 140151 National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. 101 National Research Council, 200 National Science Board Commission on Precollege Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 197, 198 National Science Foundation, 14, 146, 148, 199, 200 Rand Corporation report for, 198 research projects funded by, 202, 203 on student testing, 201 National Science and Mathematics Assessment Resource Center, 6, 65~6 National Science Resources Center, 46 National Science Teachers Association, 46, 203 New York curriculum guidelines in, 121, 183 study of newly hired teachers in, 100 New York State Regents, science content of, 176, 177 North Carolina student testing in, 185 teachers leaving teaching in, 100 Northwestern Endicott Report, 117 o Oregon science curriculum in, 132 student testing in, 185 Organization of knowledge in memory, assessment of, 57-58 Organizations, scientific, support of science and mathematics education, 4, 14, 149-151 Out-of-school activities of students, 8-9, 79-80 recommendations on, 82-83 of teachers, 103-105, 107 INDEX p Panels of experts, in assessment procedures. Scc Expert panels, in assessment procedures Pattern recognition, assessment of, 56-57 Pedagogic quality of curriculum, 13, 14, 125, 138, 139, 140 Practical literacy in mathematics, 21 Precollege education, use of term, 195 Problem soldering computerized assessment of, 60-61 free-response tests of, validity of, 62-63 internal representations of problems in, 58-60 as learning indicator, 5 procedural knowledge in, 60-61 in real-life, compared with multiple-choice tests, 44 "think aloudn method in assessment of, 59 Procedural knowledge, assessment of, 60-61 computers in, 60-61 Proce~s-product studies of teaching quality, 91, 92-93 Processing skills, assessment of, 51, 55-61 on internal representations of problems, 58-60 on organization of knowledge in memory, 57-58 on pattern recognition, 56-57 on procedural knowledge, 60-61 on retrieval of information from memory, 58 on speed of processing, 55-56 Professional teachers, 94 Project TALENT, 31 Project 2061, 203 Psychology, educational, 23, 74 Public policy decisions mathematical concepts in, 21 scientific concepts in, 19-20

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INDEX Q Questioning techniques of teachers, in classroom, 107, 108 Questionnaires in data collection, closed-ended, 35-36 R Rand Corporation, 198, 201 Rater variability in panel assessments, 37-38 Reliability of essay tests, 51 of panel assessments, 38 Representations of problems, internal, assessment of, 58-60 Representatives of education agencies, summary of meetings with, 181-196 Research Triangle Institute, 202 Reserve pool of experienced teachers, 100 Resources for teaching science and mathematics, 4,11-112,118 as curriculum quality indicator, 12, 13 influencing teacher and student behavior, 25,26 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 186-187, 193-194 as teaching quality indicator, 11, 25,111-112,118 Response latencies, in measurement of processing speed, 55-56 S Salary of teachers, 3,11-12, 113-117,118,187 and career decisions, 113 collection of data on, 115-116 compared with other occupations, 11-12,24,113-117,118 and second jobs, 103 and time use outside classroom, 103 Scale of indicators, interpretation of, 33-34 Scholastic Aptitude Tests, 199 217 coaching of students on, 45 interpretation of scores on, 33 School level of data aggregation, 31, 32 School Mathematics Monitoring Center, 203 School Mathematics Study Group, 149 Schooling outcomes, 22-26 behavior of students and teachers affecting, 22,23-24 and distribution of excellence, 23, 26 incentives and constraints affecting, 22,24-26 Scientific method, 19 Scientific organizations, support of science and mathematics education, 4,14,149-151 Scientific world view, 16-17 Simulations of scientific experiments, computer-aided, 54,59-60 Society, importance of science and mathematics in, 19-20, 21, 80, 83 Socioeconomic background, and achievement test scores, 31-32 Sociology, in study of education, 23 South Carolina curriculum guidelines in, 127, 140, 182, 204 teacher testing in, 183 Speed of processing, assessment of, 55-56 pattern recognition in, 56-57 Spiraled curriculum, 125 State education agencies curriculum guidelines of, 12, 13, 121, 127, 135, 182-183, 204 on content coverage, 133 depth of, 137 implications of indicators for, 140142 on mathematics, 128, 129 on science, 132 financial support of science and mathematics education, 148-149, 186-187 graduation requirements of, 187 student learning indicators for, 66-67

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218 summary of meetings with, 181-188 teaching quality indicators for, 108-111 State level of data aggregation, 31, 32 Student learning assessment of, 51-66 computerized assessment of, 52-54, 56, 59-61 computers improving in classroom, 53-54, 60 engagement in, 88 global assessment of, 51-54 indicators of, 2-7, 23, 40-72 key indicators of, 2-3, 6-8, 65, 81-82 research and development recommendations on, 8-g and behavior, 64~6, 82-83 supplementary indicators on, 4, 8, 82 Students, 4~89 aggregation of data on, 31-33 attitudes toward science and mathematics of, 75-76, 84-85 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 187, 194-195 participants in colloquium on, 173 research and development recommendations on, 85 autonomy sense of, 88 behavior indicators on, 2, 3, 7-g, 29, 73-89 center for production and distribution of assessment materials on, 6, 65-66 competence of, 88 conceptual knowledge and processing skills of, 51, 55-61 course enrollment data on, 2, 7, 77-78, 79 recommendations on, 81 as determinant of schooling outcome, 22, 23-24 incentives and constraints affecting, 24-26 expectations of, 88 fate control, sense of, 86-87 frequency of assessment, 65 INDEX habits of mind of, scientific and mathematical, 18-lg, 75, 76, 85-89, 187 hands-on procedures in instruction of, 5, 53, 64, 107, 108 homework on science and mathematics of, 4, 8, 80, 82, 106, 127 input-output model on, 74-75 in-~chool activities of, 7-8, 77-79, 82 recommendations on, 81-82 as key actors, 73-76 new methods of assessment, 51-66 out-of-school activities of, 8-g, 79-80 recommendations on, 82-83 perception of connectedness, 88 problem-solving skills of, 5, 44, 58-61, 62 testing of. Sac Testing, of students Subject-matter knowledge of students, indicators on, 2, 3, 4-7, 40-72 of teachers. Scc Teachers, subject-matter knowledge of Supplementary indicators of science and mathematics education, 2, 4, 29 federal financial support, 148 student behavior and learning, 4, 8, 82 teaching quality, 4, 1o-ll, 102, 107-108, 118 Supply and demand for teachers, 100, 200 and reserve pool of experienced teachers, 100 T Teachers, 3, 9-12, 90-118 collection of data on, improvements in, 200, 201, 202 college education of, 10, 95-96, 100, 102, 109, 113-117 computers in instruction methods of, 53-54, 60 curriculum changes affecting, 106, 108

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INDEX as determinant of schooling outcome, 22,23-24 incentives and constraints affecting, 24-26 early home and school experiences affecting, 101-102 encouraging intellectual curiosity, 184,190 hands-on instruction methods of, 5, 53,107, 108 implications of indicators on, for state education agencies 108-1 1 1 input-output studies of, 91, 92,93 instructional materials and supplies used by. Scc Materials and supplies, instructional interpretation of indicators on, 29 as key actors, 90-94 key indicators on, 9-10, 11-12,102, 118 leaving teaching after one year, 100 literature on, 92-93 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 183-184 189-191 outcomes-based model of, 190 participants in colloquium on, 172-173 pedagogic knowledge of, 138 process-product studies of, 91, 92-93 professional, 94 quality of curriculum delivery by, 184 questioning techniques of, 107,108 reporting on content coverage of curriculum by, 13, 134, 135 research and development recommendations on, 10, 11, 103, 108 resources in school affecting, 4, 111-112, 118 salary of. Scc Salary of teachers subject-matter knowledge of, 95, 96-100,101,102,108-110 and accuracy of curriculum, 137-138 assessment of, 183, 190 collection of data on, 99-100 219 implications for state education agencies, 108-110 of newly hired teachers, 99, 100 recommendations on testing of, 102 research needed on, 101 supplementary indicators on, 4, 10-11,102,107-108,118 supply and demand for, 100, 200 and reserve pool of experienced teachers, 100 testing of. Scc Testing, of teachers tests of student learning in evaluation of, 41-42 time use studies on, 10-11, 103-108 in classroom, 92,105-106, 110-111,126-127 as curriculum quality indicator, 126-127 outside classroom, 103-105,107 recommendations on, 107-108 research needed on, 106-107 working conditions in school affecting, 111-118 years of experience of, 92 Tennessee student testing in, 185 teacher evaluation in, 108,184 Testing of students, 5-6, 40-50 accuracy of information in, 137, 178 balanced incomplete block design of tests in, 50 computerized, 184,185 content coverage of, 133,175-180 creative thinking in, 43-44 criticisms of, 41-49 in curriculum, 122,128-129,135, 141-142 depth of topic treatments in, 137 essay tests in, 51-53 financial support for, 148 free-response tests in, 43-44, 51-53,62-63,64 frequency of, 6 ideational fluency in, 44 instructional applications of, 41-42 item banks for, 185-186,192-193 item response theory on, 48,50

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220 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 184-186, 192-193 multiple-choice tests in. Sac Multiple-choice tests purposes of, 41-42 science content in, 175-180 statewide, 185 virtues of, 49-50 of teachers, 9-10, 97-98,101,102, 108-110, 137-138,183,191 for certification, 109, 110 collection of data on, 99-100 frequency of, 10, 99, 102 implications for state education agencies, 108-110 recommendations on, 102 Tests of Achievement and Proficiency, science content of, 177 Texas, curriculum guidelines in, 140 Textbooks, in curriculum, 12,13, 121-122,135, 141 content coverage of, 128-129,133 depth of topic treatments in, 137 scientific accuracy of, 137 "Think aloud" method in assessment of problem-solving skills, 59 Time use studies, 4, 7-8,36 on homework time on science and mathematics, 4,8,80,82, on instructional time on science and mathematics. Scc Instructional time on science and mathematics on teachers, 10-11, 103-108. See ~80 Teachers, time use studies on Timing of data collection, 36 U Users of indicators, 34-35 on curriculum quality, 123-124 V Validity of panel assessments, 38 of student learning indicators, 62-63 INDEX Variability in panel assessments, 37-38 Variables affecting interpretation of indicators, 30 Videotaping of problem-solving behavior, 59 Virginia curriculum guidelines in, 127 student testing in, 185 W West Germany, curriculum guidelines in, 133, 182 Wisconsin, mathematics curriculum in, 128 Working conditions in schools, 4,25, 26,111-118 data collection on, 111-112 as indicator of curriculum quality, 12,13 as indicator of teaching quality, 11, 25,111-118 meetings with representatives of education agencies on, 186-187, 193-194 salaries in, 113-117,118 World view, scientific, 16-17 z Zoo visits, out-of-school, 80,82