BIODIVERSITY

E.O.Wilson, Editor

Frances M.Peter, Associate Editor

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.
1988



The National Academies | 500 Fifth St. N.W. | Washington, D.C. 20001
Copyright © National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Terms of Use and Privacy Statement



Below are the first 10 and last 10 pages of uncorrected machine-read text (when available) of this chapter, followed by the top 30 algorithmically extracted key phrases from the chapter as a whole.
Intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text on the opening pages of each chapter. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.

Do not use for reproduction, copying, pasting, or reading; exclusively for search engines.

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity BIODIVERSITY E.O.Wilson, Editor Frances M.Peter, Associate Editor NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1988

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Ave, NW Washington, DC 20418 The National Academy of Sciences was chartered by Congress in 1863 as a private, nonprofit organization dedicated to the furtherance of science and engineering for the public welfare. In 1916 the National Research Council was organized, enabling the Academy to draw upon the entire American scientific and technical community in the pursuit of its mandate to provide independent advice to the nation on critical scientific and technical questions. The Smithsonian Institution was created by act of Congress in 1846 in accordance with the will of the Englishman, James Smithson, who in 1826 bequeathed his property to the United States of America, “to found at Washington, under the name of the Smithsonian Institution, an establishment for the increase and diffusion of knowledge among men.” The Smithsonian has since evolved into an institution devoted to public education, research and national service in the arts, sciences and history. This independent federal establishment is the world’s largest museum complex and is responsible for public and scholarly activities, exhibitions and research projects nationwide and overseas. The National Forum on BioDiversity was developed by the Board on Basic Biology of the National Research Council’s Commission on Life Sciences and by the Smithsonian Institution’s Directorate of International Activities. The views expressed in this book are solely those of the individual authors and are not necessarily the views of the National Academy of Sciences or of the Smithsonian Institution. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data National Forum on Biodiversity (1986: Washington, D.C.) Biodiversity/Edward O.Wilson, editor, Frances M.Peter, associate editor, p. cm. “Papers from the National Forum on BioDiversity held September 21–25, 1986, in Washington, D.C., under the cosponsorship of the National Academy of Sciences and the Smithsonian Institution.” Includes index. ISBN 0-309-03783-2. ISBN 0-309-03739-5 (pbk.) 1. Biological diversity conservation—Congresses. 2. Biological diversity—Congresses. I. Wilson, Edward Osborne, 1929–II. Peter, Frances M. III. National Academy of Sciences (U.S.) IV. Smithsonian Institution. V. Title. QH75.A1N32 1986 333.7’2–dc19 First Printing, March 1988 Second Printing, May 1988 Third Printing, October 1988 Fourth Printing, May 1989 Fifth Printing, September 1989 Sixth Printing, May 1990 Seventh Printing, November 1990 Eighth Printing, August 1991 Ninth Printing, March 1992 Tenth Printing, January 1993 Eleventh Printing, January 1994 Twelfth Printing, April 1995 Thirteenth Printing, October 1996 Fourteenth Printing, February 1999 Copyright © 1988 by the National Academy of Sciences No part of this book may be reproduced by any mechanical, photographic, or electronic process, or in the form of a phonographic recording, nor may it be stored in a retrieval system, transmitted, or otherwise copied for public or private use without written permission from the publisher, except for the purposes of official use by the U.S. government. Printed in the United States of America

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity The National Forum on BioDiversity, on which this book is based, was developed by the Board on Basic Biology of the National Research Council’s Commission on Life Sciences and by the Smithsonian Institution’s Directorate of International Activities.

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity EDITOR’S FOREWORD The diversity of life forms, so numerous that we have yet to identify most of them, is the greatest wonder of this planet. The biosphere is an intricate tapestry of interwoven life forms. Even the seemingly desolate arctic tundra is sustained by a complex interaction of many species of plants and animals, including the rich arrays of symbiotic lichens. The book before you offers an overall view of this biological diversity and carries the urgent warning that we are rapidly altering and destroying the environments that have fostered the diversity of life forms for more than a billion years. The source of the book is the National Forum on BioDiversity, held in Washington, D.C., on September 21–24, 1986, under the auspices of the National Academy of Sciences and Smithsonian Institution. The forum was notable for its large size and immediately perceived impact on the public. It featured more than 60 leading biologists, economists, agricultural experts, philosophers, representatives of assistance and lending agencies, and other professionals. The lectures and panels were regularly attended by hundreds of people, many of whom participated in the discussions, and various aspects of the forum were reported widely in the press. On the final evening, a panel of six of the participants conducted a teleconference downlinked to an estimated audience of 5,000 to 10,000 at over 100 sites, most of them hosted by Sigma Xi chapters at universities and colleges in the United States and Canada. The forum coincided with a noticeable rise in interest, among scientists and portions of the public, in matters related to biodiversity and the problems of international conservation. I believe that this increased attention, which was evident by 1980 and had steadily picked up momentum by the time of the forum, can be ascribed to two more or less independent developments. The first was the accumulation of enough data on deforestation, species extinction, and tropical biology to bring global problems into sharper focus and warrant broader public exposure. It is no coincidence that 1986 was also the year that the Society for Conservation Biology was founded. The second development was the growing awareness of the close linkage between the conservation of biodiversity and economic development. In the United States and other industrial countries, the two

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity are often seen in opposition, with environmentalists and developers struggling for compromise in a zero-sum game. But in the developing nations, the opposite is true. Destruction of the natural environment is usually accompanied by short-term profits and then rapid local economic decline. In addition, the immense richness of tropical biodiversity is a largely untapped reservoir of new foods, pharmaceuticals, fibers, petroleum substitutes, and other products. Because of this set of historical circumstances, this book, which contains papers from the forum, should prove widely useful. It provides an updating of many of the principal issues in conservation biology and resource management. It also documents a new alliance between scientific, governmental, and commercial forces—one that can be expected to reshape the international conservation movement for decades to come. The National Forum on BioDiversity and thence this volume were made possible by the cooperative efforts of many people. The forum was conceived by Walter G.Rosen, Senior Program Officer in the Board on Basic Biology—a unit of the Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council/National Academy of Sciences (NRC/NAS). Dr. Rosen represented the NRC/NAS throughout the planning stages of the project. Furthermore, he introduced the term biodiversity, which aptly represents, as well as any term can, the vast array of topics and perspectives covered during the Washington forum. Edward W.Bastian, Smithsonian Institution, mobilized and orchestrated the diverse resources of the Smithsonian in the effort. Drs. Rosen and Bastian were codirectors of the forum. Michael H.Robinson (Director of the National Zoological Park) served as chairman of the Program Committee, organized one of the forum panels, and served as general master of ceremonies. The remainder of the Program Committee consisted of William Jordan III, Thomas E.Lovejoy III, Harold A.Mooney, Stanwyn Shetler, and Michael E.Soulé. The various panels of the forum were organized and chaired by F.William Burley, William Conway, Paul R.Ehrlich, Michael Hanemann, William Jordan III, Thomas E.Lovejoy III, Harold A.Mooney, James D.Nations, Peter H.Raven, Michael H.Robinson, Ira Rubinoff, and Michael E.Soulé. David Johnson at the New York Botanical Garden was very helpful in verifying some of the botanical terms used in this book. Helen Taylor and Kathy Marshall of the NRC staff and Anne Peret of the Smithsonian Institution assisted with the wide variety of arrangements necessary to the successful conduct of the forum. Linda Miller Poore, also of the NRC staff, entered this entire document on a word processer and was responsible for formatting and checking the many references. Richard E.Morris of the National Academy Press guided this book through production. The National Forum on BioDiversity was supported by the National Research Council Fund and the Smithsonian Institution, with supplemental support from the Town Creek Foundation, the Armand G.Erpf Fund, and the World Wildlife Fund. The National Research Council Fund is a pool of private, discretionary, nonfederal funds that is used to support a program of Academy-initiated studies of national issues in which science and technology figure significantly. The NRC Fund consists of contributions from a consortium of private foundations including

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity the Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Charles E.Culpeper Foundation, the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation, the John D. and Catherine T.MacArthur Foundation, the Andrew W.Mellon Foundation, the Rockefeller Foundation, and the Alfred P.Sloan Foundation; the Academy Industry Program, which seeks annual contributions from companies that are concerned with the health of U.S. science and technology and with public policy issues with technological content; and the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering endowments. The publication of this volume was supported by the National Research Council Dissemination Fund, with supplemental support from the World Wildlife Fund. We are deeply grateful to all these organizations for making this project possible. Finally, and far from least, Frances M.Peter marshalled the diverse contributions in the present volume and was essential to every step of the manuscript editing process. The cover for Biodiversity was derived from a forum poster designed by artist Robert Goldstrom. E.O.WILSON

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity This page intentionally left blank.

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity CONTENTS 1   The Current State of Biological Diversity E.O.Wilson   3 PART 1 CHALLENGES TO THE PRESERVATION OF BIODIVERSITY     2   The Loss of Diversity: Causes and Consequences Paul R.Ehrlich   21 3   Tropical Forests and Their Species: Going, Going…? Norman Myers   28 4   Ecological Diversity in Coastal Zones and Oceans G.Carleton Ray   36 5   Diversity Crises in the Geological Past David M.Raup   51 6   Estimating Reductions in the Diversity of Tropical Forest Species Ariel E.Lugo   58 7   Challenges to Biological Diversity in Urban Areas Dennis D.Murphy   71 PART 2 HUMAN DEPENDENCE ON BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY     8   Deep Ecology Meets the Developing World James D.Nations   79 9   Screening Plants for New Medicines Norman R.Farnsworth   83 10   Serendipity in the Exploration of Biodiversity: What Good Are Weedy Tomatoes? Hugh H.Iltis   98

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity 11   The Outlook for New Agricultural and Industrial Products from the Tropics Mark J.Plotkin   106 PART 3 DIVERSITY AT RISK: TROPICAL FORESTS     12   Our Diminishing Tropical Forests Peter H.Raven   119 13   The Tropical Forest Canopy: The Heart of Biotic Diversity Terry L.Erwin   123 14   Tropical Dry Forests: The Most Endangered Major Tropical Ecosystem Daniel H.Janzen   130 15   Deforestation and Indians in Brazilian Amazonia Kenneth I.Taylor   138 16   Primate Diversity and the Tropical Forest: Case Studies from Brazil and Madagascar and the Importance of the Megadiversity Countries Russell A.Mittermeier   145 PART 4 DIVERSITY AT RISK: THE GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE     17   Lessons from Mediterranean-Climate Regions Harold A.Mooney   157 18   Structural and Functional Diversity in Temperate Forests Jerry F.Franklin   166 19   Diversity in and among Grasslands Paul G.Risser   176 20   Diversity and Biological Invasions of Oceanic Islands Peter M.Vitousek   181 PART 5 THE VALUE OF BIODIVERSITY     21   Economics and the Preservation of Biodiversity W.Michael Hanemann   193 22   Commodity, Amenity, and Morality: The Limits of Quantification in Valuing Biodiversity Bryan Norton   200 23   The Rise of the Global Exchange Economy and the Loss of Biological Diversity Richard B.Norgaard   206

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity 24   Why Put a Value on Biodiversity? David Ehrenfeld   212 25   What Mainstream Economists Have to Say About the Value of Biodiversity Alan Randll   217 PART 6 HOW IS BIODIVERSITY MONITORED AND PROTECTED?     26   Monitoring Biological Diversity for Setting Priorities in Conservation F.William Burley   227 27   Information Management for the Conservation of Biodiversity Robert E.Jenkins, Jr.   231 28   Identifying and Protecting the Origins of Our Food Plants J.Trevor Williams   240 29   Conserving and Monitoring Biotic Diversity: Some African Examples Brian J.Huntley   248 PART 7 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY: HOW CAN THEY HELP?     30   Can Technology Aid Species Preservation? William Conway   263 31   Conservation of Biological Diversity in Botanical Gardens Peter S.Ashton   269 32   Using Science and Technology to Reestablish Species Lost in Nature Tom J.Cade   279 33   Intensive Technology in the Care of Ex Situ Populations of Vanishing Species Ulysses S.Seal   289 34   Cryobiology, Embryo Transfer, and Artificial Insemination in Ex Situ Animal Conservation Programs Betsy L.Dresser   296 PART 8 RESTORATION ECOLOGY: CAN WE RECOVER LOST GROUND?     35   Ecological Restoration: Reflections on a Half-Century of Experience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison Arboretum William R.Jordan III   311 36   Restoring Diversity in Salt Marshes: Can We Do It? Joy B.Zedler   317

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity 37   Restoration of Degraded Lands in the Amazon Basin Christopher Uhl   326 38   Increasing Diversity by Restoring Damaged Ecosystems John Cairns, Jr.   333 39   Restoring Diversity: The Search for a Social and Economic Context John Todd   344 PART 9 ALTERNATIVES TO DESTRUCTION     40   Are There Alternatives to Destruction? Michael H.Robinson   355 41   Agroecology and In Situ Conservation of Native Crop Diversity in the Third World Miguel A.Altieri and Laura C.Merrick   361 42   Alternatives to Destruction: Research in Panama Gilberto Ocana, Ira Rubinoff, Nicholas Smythe, and Dagmar Werner   370 43   Biological Engineering for Sustainable Biomass Production Sinyan Shen   377 PART 10 POLICIES TO PROTECT DIVERSITY     44   Preserving Biological Diversity in the Tropical Forests of the Asian Region John Spears   393 45   The Tropical Forestry Action Plan: Recent Progress and New Initiatives F.William Burley   403 46   International Development and the Protection of Biological Diversity Nyle C.Brady   409 PART 11 PRESENT PROBLEMS AND FUTURE PROSPECTS     47   Diverse Considerations Thomas E.Lovejoy   421 48   The Conservation of Biodiversity in Latin America: A Perspective Mario A.Ramos   428 49   A Major New Opportunity to Finance the Preservation of Biodiversity Robert J.A.Goodland   437

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity 50   And Today We’re Going To Talk About Biodiversity…That’s Right, Biodiversity Lester R.Brown   446 51   The Effect of Global Climatic Change on Natural Communities Robert L.Peters II   450 PART 12 WAYS OF SEEING THE BIOSPHERE     52   Mind in the Biosphere; Mind of the Biosphere Michael E.Soulé   465 53   A Mammal Gallery: Five Word Pictures and Three Poems Michael McClure   470 54   Cold Water Spirit Larry Littlebird   476 55   A Christian View of Biodiversity John B.Cobb, Jr.   481 56   The Earth as a Living Organism James E.Lovelock   486 PART 13 EPILOGUE     57   Epilogue David Challinor   493 Index   497

OCR for page R1
BioDiversity This page intentionally left blank.