Professor of Biological Sciences, Department of Biological Sciences, Stanford University, Stanford, California

Discussions on the loss of biological diversity are correctly focused on tropical regions because of the massive, rather recent alterations in the structure of these extensive biotic communities. The consequences of these alterations are many. There are of course no landscapes on Earth that have not been modified to some extent by the human species. Many of these landscapes have been totally altered from their prehuman configuration and functioning, and others appear less affected; however, none are protected from the types of global changes that are resulting from human-induced alterations of the Earth’s atmosphere.

This section focuses on the nature and some of the consequences of alterations of nontropical biogeographic regions. The discussions are selective, concentrating on selected processes and organisms within a few systems. In Chapter 18, Franklin deals with temperate and boreal forests, which occupy 16% of Earth’s land surface—an area equivalent to that covered by tropical forests (Waring and Schlesinger, 1985)—and which have provided to a large degree the timber and in part the fuel to support the growing human population. In the next chapter, Risser discusses the impact of humans on biological diversity in grasslands, the biome that has largely provided, either directly or indirectly, the food for the world’s human population. Finally, in Chapter 20, Vitousek details the kinds of biotic changes that have resulted from human settlement on Hawaii and on oceanic islands in general—systems that have proven to be particularly susceptible to losses and additions of species.

Each chapter emphasizes somewhat different points. Franklin focuses on the consequences of structural diversity loss in forest ecosystems, drawing examples

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