the nature of restoration, about its potential and its limitations as a strategy for conserving biological diversity, and about the environmental and social conditions under which it is likely to be feasible.

TECHNICAL, ECOLOGICAL FEASIBILITY

The first lesson that one might derive from this experience is that it is indeed possible, at least under certain circumstances, to re-create reasonably authentic replicas of some native ecological communities (Blewett, 1981). For example, the Arboretum’s two restored tallgrass prairies (Curtis and Greene prairies) now include areas believed to resemble quite closely prairies native to the area—at least with respect to floristic composition. In other words, most of the appropriate vascular plants are present; they are present in more or less the right proportions and associations; and the number of inappropriate plants—that is, exotics or plants not native to the tallgrass prairies of this area—is small.

On the other hand, there are large areas on these prairies where ecological or historic authenticity is relatively low and where various exotic species are abundant. Certain of these species have proved to be extremely difficult to remove or control. Some have turned out to be capable of invading the more or less intact prairie community, often at the expense of the native plants. As a result, it is now abundantly clear that the problem of dealing with exotics is an ongoing one and that the struggle will in many instances be unending. Undisturbed natural communities are also vulnerable to invasions by exotic species but, in general, probably less so than communities in the process of being restored. Without doubt, this has turned out to be a major problem facing restorationists.

In addition, the restoration program at the Arboretum has strongly emphasized revegetation, far less attention being paid to the reintroduction of animal species. This is frequently the case in restoration and land reclamation projects, since the assumption is often made that the appropriate animals will find their way into the community once it has developed to a certain point. But this does not always happen for complex reasons that include the size of the communities, their uneven quality, and their isolation from existing animal populations. An instance of this now appears to have occurred in the Arboretum’s restored southern maple forest, where ommission of an ant species that normally aids the dispersal of the seeds of certain herbaceous plants, such as bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) and wild ginger (Asarum canadense), has resulted in the development of these species into peculiar, dense patches (Woods, 1984).

A related problem with restored communities generally is their small size, which can directly influence their ecological quality. Certain animals, for example, may not inhabit restored communities simply because these communities are often too small. This is a major reason why few if any restored prairies include buffalo, for example. At present, the prairie at Fermilab in suburban Chicago is probably the largest restored tallgrass prairie in existence (Nelson, 1987). Of course, this nearly 240-hectare prairie is still very small in comparison to the millions of hectares of prairie that existed in this area at the time of European settlement, and its ability to support populations of large native animals is at best problematic.



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