ersity must be tested. Every restoration project can include experimentation in its design, e.g., to provide different tidal flows; to test different hydroperiods, salinities, and nutrient inputs; to use different transplantation regimes; or to vary the width of buffer zones, with treatments appropriately replicated. Detailed, long-term evaluation of the experiments will document success or failure to maintain natural diversity. In either event, we will learn whether it can be done and why it succeeds or fails. The present practice of poorly planned, unreplicated, undocumented trials leads mainly to errors whose causes cannot be identified. Only as our understanding of factors controlling wetland ecosystems improves can we ensure the restoration and maintenance of biodiversity.


Research on wetland restoration was funded in part by NOAA, National Sea Grant College Program, Department of Commerce, under grant number NA80AA-D-00120, project number R/CZ-51, through the California Sea Grant College Program, and in part by the California State Resources Agency.


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