FIGURE 39–2 Solar aquaculture ponds in winter conditions on Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Photo by J.Todd.

can also be grown on the surface for even higher economic yields. An additional benefit of the modules is conservation of water. Since evaporation is almost eliminated from the surface, rates of water replenishment are based on plant evapotranspiration and the amount of water released from the module to irrigate and fertilize the adjacent area (Figures 39–3 and 39–4).

Desert-farming modules are an agroecology that require initial seed capital to construct and establish. But to a large extent, tillage, harvesting, fertilizing, and irrigation are a substitute for the heavy equipment that would otherwise have to be used for establishing and operating a farm on degraded soils. Not only are the

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