groundwater runoff, increase ground water infiltration, recharge groundwater reservoirs, and produce the by-products of fuelwood and fodder.
A typical design of a clonal hedgerow system entails the construction of hillside ditches and the planting of two rows of trees or shrubs on the rise (bund) of the ditches, which follow the contour of the hillsides, and one row planted in the depression (Figure 43–6). The hillside ditches increase the system’s effectiveness in controlling erosion while increasing water percolation into the soil. Soil erosion control is more effective when the spacing of the plants is alternated between hedgerows (Figure 43–7). Soil could still be eroded from around the stems. It is desirable to place some type of biomass uphill and behind the live stems to make a more effective barrier to hold the soil and accelerate the formation of natural terraces. Rows of plants on the rise and in the ditch would provide greater access to the forage by browsing animals, if the functions of plant material production and the cut-and-carry system of forage production were phased into a browse-pasture system.