new crops, 109–110

Peruvian, 5, 31, 124

projected species losses, 11, 31–32

restoration of degraded lands, 326–332

species richness, 39, 106

swamps, 110

valuation of plants, 106

Amberjack (Seriola dumerili), 45

American kestrel (Falco sparverius), 280

Amerindians

Aztecs, 109, 279

Brazilian Amazonia, 114, 138–143

deforestation effects, 114, 142–143

Gavioes, 142

Kutchin, 279

Kayapo, 140, 141

management of forest resources, 79–80, 114, 138–143

Mayans, 80, 358

poison use, 87, 111

productivity, 142

Ramkokamekra Canela, 142

Yanomami, 138–142

see also specific Indian groups

Ammonites, longevity, 7–8

Amphibians, 5, 131, 167, 170, 266;

see also specific species

Andes mountains

agroecological practices, 367

conservation value, 133

deforestation, 120

habitat destruction, 229

uplifts, 124–125

wild tomato, 99, 110

Andropogon spp. (grasses), 186, 314

Angkor rain forest, 9

Angola

birds, 252

Giant Sable Integral Nature Reserve, 254

lowland forests, 254–255

Mount Moco, 252

primates, 149–150

Animals, 81, 290, 296, 313, 356–357;

see also Birds;

Fishes;

Insects;

Mammals;

Primates;

Reptiles;

Vertebrates;

and specific species

Antarctica, 39

Antelope, pronghorn (Antilocarpa americana), 71

Ants, 6, 7, 9, 111, 132, 251, 329, 330, 357;

see also specific species

Aquaculture, 44, 347–352

Aquatic food webs, 40–41

Aquifers, 72, 341, 387

Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), 265, 286, 290

Argentina, 176;

see also South America

Armadillos (Dasypus novemcinctus), 81, 297

Arrow root (Maranta arundinacea), 374

Arthropods, pharmacologic interest, 93, 94

Artichoke (Cynara scolymus), 85, 107

Aru, 12

Ashton, Peter S., 9, 269–275

Asia

agricultural productivity intensification, 394–395

closed tropical forest status, 393–394

conservation policies, 396–398

deforestation rates, 64–65, 120, 393

development agencies, 398

extinction rates, 64–65

protected forests, 11

solutions to deforestation, 394–396

species diversity, 31, 64–65

wildlands of concern, 438–439

see also Southeast Asia;

and specific countries

Asimov, Isaac, 129

Aspen (Populus spp.), 167

Auk, Great (Penguinus impennis), 45

Australia

avian reintroductions, 281

biological invasions, 163, 182

dry tropical regions, 130

grasslands, 176

mapping vegetation, 228

Queensland, 228

Southwest, 269

woody plant diversity, 159

Austria, 75

Aye-aye (Daubentonia madagascariensis), 146, 150, 264

Avocado (Persea americana), 111

Azalea, yellow (Rhododendron molle), 88

Azores, 161

Aztec Indians, 109, 279;

see also Amerindians

B

Babassú palm (Orbignya spp.), 113

Bacabá (Oenocarpus bacaba), 113

Bacteria, 7, 15, 22, 93

Bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 201, 222, 264–265, 280–282

Banana poka (Passiflora mollissima), 187

Barberry (Berberis vulgaris), 84

Barley, cross-breeding, 110

Barro Colorado Island (Panama), 12, 375



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