Bay checkerspot (Euphydryas editha bayensis) butterflies, 22

Beans, 87, 111, 243, 244;

see also specific species

Bearded pigs (Sus barbatus), 356

Bears (Ursus spp.), 71, 75

Beech (Fagus sylvatica), 451

Beetles, 123, 127–128, 215;

see also specific species

Belding’s Savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis beldingi), 319, 323

Belladonna (Atropa belladonna), 84

Bering Sea, 46

Betel-nut palm (Areca catechu), 84

Beza-Mahafaly project, 152

Biodiversity

aquatic, 171–172

benefits of, 21, 73, 81–82, 103, 296;

see also Drugs and pharmaceuticals, plant-derived

burning effects, 80, 177–178

causes and consequences of losses, 14, 21–26, 59, 63, 72–73, 131, 197, 231, 263–264, 280–281, 446;

see also Deforestation;

Habitats destruction

characteristic, 42, 44, 45

Christian view, 481–485

classification, see Taxonomy

coevolution, 203, 207–210

communicating the importance of, 82, 465–469

costs of research, 102

crises in geologic past, 51–57;

see also Extinctions

current state, 3–18

in dance, song, story, and poetry, 470–480

definition, 3, 36, 71

diversification, 160, 209–210, 275

economic considerations, 14–16, 79–82, 114–115, 206–210, 212–213, 415, 441, 443;

see also Resource economics

endemic, see Endemism

estimating losses, 10–14, 22, 26, 44, 58–69

ethical considerations, 16, 80–81

extinction, see Extinction;

Extinction rates

formation, 209

gene pool reductions, 7, 11–12, 22, 32, 81

global role, 3, 10–12, 21–35, 48, 409

human dependence, 3, 21, 58, 81–82, 99

industrial uses, 112

information management, 231–238

interdependence among species, 203, 275

log factor, 169–171

medicinal uses, see Drugs and pharmaceuticals;

Medicine;

Traditional medicine

Mediterranean-climate region, 160–162

megadiversity countries, 145, 152–153

monitoring, 227–230, 231–239, 257–259

moral value, 201–202, 215–216

patterns, 422–423

prevention of losses, 13–17, 22, 25–26;

see also Conservation;

Preservation

productivity correlation, 42, 44

research goals, needs, and challenges, 14, 38–40, 46

serendipity and exploration, 98–105

species numbers and richness, 3–7, 14, 42, 64–65, 68, 131, 200, 232

structural dynamics, 160, 169–171

taxonomy, see Taxonomy

tropical compared to temperate regions, 158–160

urban area, 71–76

valuation, 47, 98–105, 193–222;

see also Resource economics

Vavilovian centers, 242–243

see also Genetic diversity

Biogeography

island, 6, 11, 12–13, 29–32, 42, 100, 269–270, 275

marine, 37–38, 41–43

shallow-time data use in, 52

Biological engineering, 377–389

Biomass production, 23, 61, 359, 377–386

Biophilia, 16–17, 99

BioSciences Information Service (BIOSIS), 246

Birch (Betula spp.), 167, 451

Bird’s beak, salt marsh (Cordylanthus maritimus), 317, 322

Birds

African, 251–252

as analogs of filter feeders, 39

artificial insemination, 281, 303

breeding success, 186, 280–282

diurnal raptors, 280–282

diversity, 5, 9, 39, 131, 150, 250, 266

ecology, 22

extinction, 11, 12, 45, 63, 66, 71, 74, 151, 181, 183, 279–288, 317–319

forest habitats, 170

grassland species, 178

ground-nesting, 186

habitat size, 178

human-imprinted, 281

Madagascar, 150



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