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Il. Private Contributions 29

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National Academy of Sciences :1999 Private Contributions We gratefully acknowledge the support of private contributors to the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Contributions to the National Academy of Engineering are recognized in the NAB Treasurer's Report. Individuals Major Individual Contributors ($10,000 or More) Bruce M. Alberts Jack R. Anderson Warren L. Batts Lewis M. Branscomb Daniel Branton Malin Burnham John K. Castle James McConnell Clark Eugene Garfield William T. Golden Jerome H. Grossman Jane Hirsh Robert L. James Kenneth A. Jonsson Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. John H. Krehbiel, Jr. Gerald D. Laubach The Presidents' Circle Thomas A. Mann G. William Miller Allen E. Puckett Neil R. Rolde Hinda G. Rosenthal Sara Lee Schupf Herbert A. Simon H. Guyford Stever The Presidents' Circle is a support group of individuals from the private sector who advocate a greater awareness of science and technology in our society and a better understanding of the work of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine. Bruce M. Alberts Jack R. Anderson Thomas D. Barrow Warren L. Batts Berkley Bedell Bruce D. Benson Diane Bernstein R. Stephen Berry E. Milton Bevington William M. Bitting Richard A. Bloch Elkan R. Blout Richard W. Bowen II Herbert W. Boyer E. Cabell Brand Malin Burnham Dan Burns Fletcher L. Byrom Louis W. Cabot George Campbell, Jr. David R. Challoner *Deceased. James McConnell Clark Dollie Cole Charles "Pete" Conrad* Howard E. Cox Richard L. Duchossois Charles W. Duncan, Jr. George C. Eads Robert J. Eaton James D. Ebert John Everets, Jr. Harold J. Fallon James L. Ferguson Harold K. Forsen Robert E. Fuisz John Brooks Fuqua Raymond E. Galvin Robert W. Galvin Barnett Grace Ronald L. Graham Paul E. Gray E. Andrews Grinstead III Ruth H. Grobstein Jerome H. Grossman Norman Hackerman Jack Halpern William M. Haney III Samuel F. Heffner, Jr. William R. Hewlett Jane Hirsh Robert S. Ingersoll M. Blakeman Ingle Robert L. James Kenneth A. Jonsson Philip Jonsson Alice Kandell John F. Keane, Sr. William F. Kieschnick William I. Koch Jill Howell Kramer John H. Krehbiel, Jr. Gerald D. Laubach Steve Lazarus James A. Lovell, Jr. Fred W. Lyons, Jr. Gloria C. Ma Richard J. Mahoney Thomas J. Malone Robert H. Malott Thomas A. Mann Burton J. McMurtry Charles H. McTier Paula Kent Meehan Kamal K. Midha Charles Miller G. William Miller George P. Mitchell Joe F. Moore David T. Morgenthaler Darla Mueller Dianne F. Neal Patricia Nettleship Guy W. Nichols Ralph S. O'Connor

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The Presidents' Circle (continued) Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Allen E. Puckett Charles A. Sanders Daniel M. Tellep Simon Ostrach George B. Rathmann CollinW. Scarborough Robert V. Waltemeyer Jack S. Parker Charles W. Robinson Sara Lee Schupf W. Hall Wendel, Jr. Gerald Paul Robert D. Rogers H. R. Shepherd John C. Westwater Charles M. Pigott Neil R. Rolde Kenneth I. Shine Sheila E. Widnall Jody Potts Hinda G. Rosenthal Dorothy Simpson Margaret S. Wilson Frank Press F. Sherwood Rowland Joseph E. Slater TadatakaYamada Robert A. Pritzker Jill Sackler Georges C. St. Laurent, Jr. Alejandro Zaffaroni Harvey S. Sadow Deborah Szekely The Elkan Blout Society of the National Academy of Sciences The Elkan Blout Society recognizes NAS members who have contributed more than $20,000 to the National Academies through present or planned gift arrangements. Bruce M. Alberts Eleanor Barschall Arnold O. Beckman Paul Berg Elkan R. Blout Lewis M. Branscomb Daniel Branton Ellis B. Cowling Lee J. Cronbach Mildred S. Dresselhaus Ernest L. Eliel Emanuel Epstein Richard L. Garwin T. H. Geballe Norman H. Giles Hermann A. Haus Mr. William R. Hewlett Daniel E. Koshland, Jr. Martin G. Larrabee Maclyn McCarty Kenneth G. McKay Mr. G. Lewis Meyer Francis D. Moore Arno G. Motulsky Oliver E. Nelson, Jr. Frank Press Allen E. Puckett The TOM Society of the Institute of Medicine Simon Ramo Alexander Rich Frederic M. Richards Charles M. Rick, Jr. Hinda G. Rosenthal William J. Rutter Bernard G. Sarnat Paul R. Schimmel Rudi Schmid Herbert A. Simon Robert L. Sinsheimer H. Guyford Stever John A. Wheeler The IOM Society recognizes IOM members who have contributed more than $20,000 to the National Academies through present or planned gift arrangements. Paul Berg Roger J. Bulger Jerome H. Grossman Robert W. Miller Arno G. Motulsky Mary O. Mundinger Gilbert S. Omenn Alexander Rich Henry W. Riecken Frederick C. Robbins Hinda G. Rosenthal Bernard G. Sarnat Kenneth I. Shine ~ 1

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1999 Individual Contributors ($5,000 to $9,999) Thomas D. Barrow Diane and Norman Bernstein Richard W. Bowen II Roger J. Bulger Fletcher L. Byrom Louis W. Cabot David R. Challoner Howard E. Cox Clarence R. Allen Wyatt W. Anderson Nancy C. Andreasen Robert Austrian Daniel L. Azarnoff Berkley Bedell J. Claude Bennett John A. Benson, Jr. H. A. Bethe E. Milton Bevington Dennis M. Bier Richard A. Bloch Elkan R. Blout E. Cabell Brand Harvey Brooks Herbert C. Brown Glenn W. Burton Eugenio Calabi Hampton L. Carson Marvin H. Caruthers C.W. Chu Ralph J. Cicerone Arthur D. Code Morrel H. Cohen Dollie Cole Douglas L. Coleman Stirling A. Colgate Harvey R. Colten Eric E. Conn Erminio Costa Nicholas R. Cozzarelli Pedro M. Cuatrecasas 32 Charles W. Duncan, Jr. George C. Eads John Everets, Jr. Raymond E. Galvin Robert W. Galvin T. H. Geballe Maureen M. Henderson Robert S. Ingersoll M. Blakeman Ingle Alice Kandell Jill Howell Kramer Adel A. Mahmoud Richard J. Mahoney Burton J. McMurtry Merrill Meadow Kamal K. Midha Darla Mueller Guy W. Nichols Ralph S. O'Connor Jack S. Parker 1999 Individual Contributors ($l,000 to $4,999) William H. Danforth Worth B. Daniels, Jr. Edward E. David, Jr. R. Gordon Douglas, Jr. James D. Ebert Richard H. Egdahl Lloyd C. Elam James L. Ferguson Kathleen M. Foley Hans Frauenfelder Victor R. Fuchs Robert E. Fuisz John Brooks Fuqua David V. Goeddel Avram Goldstein Joseph L. Goldstein William E. Gordon Barnett Grace Ronald L. Graham Willard Hackerman Jack Halpern Beatrix A. Hamburg David A. Hamburg Samuel F. Heffner, Jr. Norman H. Horowitz Dean T. Jamison Michael E. Johns Philip Jonsson Michael M. Kaback Walter Kauzmann Hans J. Kende William F. Kieschnick Sung W. Kim David M. Kipnis William I. Koch C. Everett Koop Konrad B. Krauskopf James S. Langer James S. Lieberman Hans W. Liepmann Rodolfo R. Llinas Gwilym S. Lodwick II R. Duncan Luce Margaret E. Mahoney Thomas J. Malone Robert H. Malott Maclyn McCarty Roger O. McClellan Donald S. McClure William W. McGuire Mario J. Molina Joe F. Moore Van C. Mow William W. Mullins Dianne F. Neal Philip Needleman Robert M. Nerem Patricia Nettleship Quigg Newton Peter O'Donnell, Jr. Stuart H. Orkin June E. Osborn Mary Jane Osborn John W. Owen Sanford L. Palay Ruth Patrick Charles M. Pigott Charles W. Robinson Charles A. Sanders Collin W. Scarborough Rudi Schmid H. R. Shepherd Georges C. St. Laurent, Jr. Deborah Szekely John C. Westwater Gerald Paul Bernard O. Phinney Jody Potts Simon Ramo Helen M. Ranney George B. Rathmann Peter H. Raven George G. Reader Charles M. Rick, Jr. Robert D. Rogers Leon E. Rosenberg F. Sherwood Rowland Harvey S. Sadow Joseph E. Scherger Richard B. Setlow Kenneth I. Shine Stephen M. Shortell Dorothy Simpson Joseph E. Slater Emil L. Smith Mitchell W. Spellman Lubert Stryer Patrick Suppes Andrew J. Viterbi Peter K. Vogt Gail L. Warden Malcolm S.M. Watts Sidney Weinhouse Irving L. Weissman Jean D. Wilson Tadataka Yamada Michael Zubkoff

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1999 Individual Contributors ($100 to $999) Francois M. Abboud Faye G. Abdellah Herbert L. Abrams John E. Affeldt Dyanne D. Affonso P. Bai Akridge Joel J. Alpert Lawrence K. Altman Kinsey A. Anderson Theodore W. Anderson Edward M. Arnett Kenneth J. Arrow John P. Atkinson Mary Ellen Avery John D. Axtell Daniel L. Azarnoff Howard L. Bailit Paul T. Baker Ransom L. Baldwin Robert M. Ball Jack D. Barchas Clyde F. Barker Jeremiah A. Barondess Manuel Barrera Fred Basolo John C. Beck Richard E. Behrman Helmut Beinert Baruj Benacerraf Leslie Z. Benet Sidney W. Benson Edward J. Benz, Jr. Paul Berg Robert M. Berne Kenneth I. Berns Lionel M. Bernstein R. Stephen Berry William Bevan Peter J. Bickel Mina J. Bissell Robert L. Black Robert J. Blendon Baruch S. Blumberg Allan G. Bogue Stuart Bondurant Richard J. Bonnie F. R. Boyd, Jr. John S. Boyer John I. Brauman Jeane Breinig Robert L. Brent Jan L. Breslow Neal S. Bricker Frank Brink, Jr. W. F. Brinkman Lonnie R. Bristow William A. Brock Claire V. Broome Carolyn T. Brown Harold Brown Leonard L. Brown J. Robert Buchanan Germaine M. Buck William E. Bunney, Jr. Ann W. Burgess Donald L. Burkholder R. H. Burris John W. Bussman John Cairns, Jr. David W. Canfield Charles C. Capen Carol J. Cardona William B. Carey Lynn P. Carmichael William T. Carpenter, Jr. A. W. Castleman, Jr. Webster K. Cavenee Purnell W. Choppin Michael T. Clegg John A. Clements Leighton E. Cluff Michael D. Coe D. Walter Cohen Jordan J. Cohen Morris Cohen Mary Sue Coleman R. John Collier Yolanda L. Comedy James P. Comer Allan H. Conney Robert E. Connick Esther M. Conwell Robert B. Copeland Ralph Crawshaw Albert V. Crewe James F. Crow Barbara J. Culliton James H. Curry G. Brent Dalrymple William H. Daughaday Ezra C. Davidson, Jr. James 0. Davis Karen Davis Mark M. Davis Raymond Davis, Jr. Thadious M. Davis Robert A. Derzon Roman W. DeSanctis Thomas Detre William H. Dietz Frank J. Dixon Jack E. Dixon Paul M. Doty Harry G. Drickamer Renato Dulbecco Clifton 0. Dummett Floyd Dunn Johanna T. Dwyer Isidore S. Edelman Robert N. Eisenman Mostafa A. El-Sayed Neil J. Elgee Ernest L. Eliel W. G. Ernst Carroll L. Estes E. Harvey Estes, Jr. William K. Estes Caswell A. Evans, Jr. Charles J. Fahey Harold J. Fallon Saul J. Farber David S. Farrar Anthony S. Fauci Donald W. Fawcett Daniel D. Federman Gary Felsenfeld John D. Ferry Harvey V. Fineberg Delbert A. Fisher Alfred P. Fishman Charles D. Flagle M. Judah Folkman Loretta C. Ford Daniel W. Foster T. Kenneth Fowler Michael Frankel Howard S. Frazier Ronald Freedman Emil Frei III William Fulkerson Mitchell H. Gail Joseph G. Gall Robert C. Gallo Stanley M. Garn Eva M. Garroutte Alicia Gaspar de Alba E. Peter Geiduschek Alfred Gellhorn Eleanor J. Gibson Harold S. Ginsberg Andrew M. Gleason Lewis R. Goldfrank Paul Goldhaber Lee Goldman Ralph E. Gomory Robert A. Good Ward H. Goodenough Leo A. Goodman Susan Goodman Enoch Gordis Leon Gordis Harry B. Gray Larry A. Green J. Lee Greene Tibor J. Greenwalt Robert B. Griffiths Paul F. Griner Ruth T. Gross Michael Grossman Melvin M. Grumbach Keith Guinn Laurie M. Gunter Walter Guralnick Norman Hackerman Richard L. Harlow Trudier Harris Arthur D. Hasler James G. Haughton Michael G. Hauser

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Richard J. Havel Elizabeth D. Hay Anthony Hernandez Ira Herskowitz Evelyn B. Higginbotham Mahlon Hoagland Joseph F. Hoffman Ralph T. Holman Edward W. Holmes Thomas F. Hornbein W. W. Howells Peter M. Howley John P. Huchra John R. Huizenga Jerard Hurwitz Richard O. Hynes Carlos E. Ibanez Suzanne T. Ildstad Alex Inkeles Thomas S. Inui J. D. Jackson James S. Jackson Robert W. Jamplis Richard B. Johnston, Jr. Robert J. Joynt Richard V. Kadison Jerome Kagan Jerome and Isabella Karle Robert W. Kates Michael Katz Samuel L. Katz Joyce Keithley Edmond J. Keller Amanda Kemp Charles F. Kennel H. Gobind Khorana Charles A. Kiesler Edwin D. Kilbourne Ivan R. King James L. Kinsey Marc W. Kirschner Carl Kisslinger Seymour J. Klebanoff Claude B. Klee Charles R. Kleeman Luella Klein Miles V. Klein Franklin Knight Ernst Knobil 34 Leon Knopoff Alfred G. Knudson, Jr. Anthony L. Komaroff James S. Kouvel Edwin G. Krebs Norman M. Kroll Charlotte Kuh Kiyoshi Kurokawa Joseph Lamer Martin G. Larrabee Judith R. Lave Robert S. Lawrence Alexander Leaf Cindy Lederman David M. Lee LaSalle D. Leffall Nelson J. Leonard Aaron B. Lerner Alphonso E. Leure-Dupree Johanna M. Levelt Sengers Howard Leventhal Norman G. Levinsky Edithe J. Levit Olga F. Linares Dan L. Lindsley, Jr. Gardner Lindzey Richard M. Losick J. Ross Macdonald Fred T. MacKenzie A. M. Maglacas Anthony P. Mahowald Donald C. Malins Thomas F. Malone Henri R. Manasse, Jr. Robert W. Mann Vincent T. Marchesi Rudolph A. Marcus Robert R. Marshak Joseph B. Martin Bettie Sue S. Masters John C. Mather Ernst Mayr Angela B. McBride Marie C. McCormick Hugh O. McDevitt Clement J. McDonald Bruce S. McEwen W. Clark McFadden II Nellie Y. McKay Christopher F. McKee Steven L. McKnight J. Alexander McMahon Sherman M. Mellinkoff John W. Miles David R. Miller I. George Miller, Jr. Louis H. Miller Neal E. Miller Ronald D. Miller Mortimer Mishkin George P. Mitchell James K. Mitchell Harley W. Moon Francis D. Moore Peter B. Moore Victoria Mora Cathleen S. Morawetz Edward A. Mortimer, Jr. George K. Muellner Walter H. Munk Joseph E. Murray Jack Myers Masatoshi Nei Oliver E. Nelson, Jr. Maria I. New Joseph P. Newhouse Elena O. Nightingale D. Warner North Michael W. O' Mahoney Gilbert S. Omenn Gordon H. Orians Douglas D. Osheroff Robert T. Paine George E. Palade Morton B. Panish Herbert Pardes Robert Parker Charles S. Parmenter George W. Parshall Robert E. Patricelli Stephen G. Pauker J. Warren Perry Daniel W. Pettengill Gordon H. Pettengill Michael E. Phelps Carol B. Phillips William H. Pickering Chester M. Pierce Dianne M. Pinderhughes E. R. and Nora K. Piore Roy M. Pitkin Thomas D. Pollard Leopold J. Pospisil Leo J. Postman William H. Press Joyce Purnell Dale Purves Frank W. Putnam* Mitchell T. Rabkin Roy Radner Malcom Randall Marina Ratner Lester J. Reed Richard J. Reed Clifford E. Reid Julius B. Richmond Burton Richter Lorrin A. Riggs Matilda W. Riley David L. Rimoin Victor Rios, Jr. Hans Ris Frederick C. Robbins John B. Robbins Eugene Roberts Orlando S. Rodriguez Rolando J. Romero Acton D. Romig Renato Rosaldo Walter A. Rosenblith William R. Roy, Sr. Edward Rubenstein N. P. Samios Simone Sandier Otto Santa Ana David Satcher Martin Saunders Howard K. Schachman John A. Schellman Gerold L. Schiebler Robert W. Schrier gelding H. Scribner Sheldon J. Segal William H. Sewell Ethel Shanas Ascher H. Shapiro Aaron J. Shatkin

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John F. Sherman Charles J. Sherr G. Shirane Eric M. Shooter Samuel C. Silverstein Maxine F. Singer Robert L. Sinsheimer G. W. Skinner Gloria R. Smith Robert R. Sokal Louis Sokoloff David H. Solomon Daniel Solorzano Harold C. Sox, Jr. Robert D. Sparks William N. Spellacy Allan C. Spradling Charles C. Sprague Franklin W. Stahl Nathan J. Stark Robert Steinberg Donald M. Steinwachs Judith S. Stern *Deceased. Rosemary A. Stevens Gilbert Stork James E. Strain Robert Straus F. W. Studier Albert J. Stunkard Federico Subervi Mervyn W. Susser Norman Sutin Morton N. Swartz Claudia C. Tate Henry Taube Palmer W. Taylor Susan S. Taylor Thomas N. Taylor S. M. Tenney Robert G. Thomas George A. Thompson Maury Tigner Shirley M. Tilghman Judith E. Tintinalli Robert E. Tranquada George H. Trilling John W. Tukey James H. Tumlinson III Karl K. Turekian J. A. Tyson Arthur C. Upton William N. Valentine Jan H. van Bemmel Neal A. Vanselow Martha Vaughan Paul A. Volberding Peter H. von Hippel Warren H. Wagner* David B. Wake Salih J. Wakil Duard L. Walker Edward E. Wallach Diane W. Wara Peter A. Ward George D. Watkins Julia R. Weertman Steven Weinberg I. B. Weinstein Fred L. Whipple Albert E. Whitford M. Donald Whorton Benjamin Widom Carl E. Wieman Meir Wilchek Bryan Williams T. Franklin Williams Evelyn M. Witkin Owen N. Witte Jan Wlodarkiewicz Gerald N. Wogan Otto F. Wolke H. Boyd Woodruff Charles E. Woodward Catherine E. Woteki H. E. Wright, Jr. Tadataka Yamada Keith R. Yamamoto Asa G. Yancey, Sr. Vernon R. Young Rafia Zafar George D. Zuidema Jozef J. Zwislocki ~J

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The following organizations made gifts and pledges in 1999 to support work at the National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Medicine, and National Research Council. Foundations Anonymous The W. Alton Jones Foundation, Inc. Rose-Marie and Jack R. Anderson Foundation The AYCO Charitable Foundation Baltimore Community Foundation Baumol Family Foundation The Diane & Norman Bernstein Foundation Shirley and Cabell Brand Charitable Trust The Breast Cancer Research Foundation The Burnham Foundation Burroughs Wellcome Fund California HealthCare Foundation Carnegie Corporation of New York The Annie E. Casey Foundation Charitable Gift Fund The Edna McConnell Clark Foundation Clermont Charitable Trust The Commonwealth Fund Community Foundation for Southeastern Michigan Community Foundation of the United Jewish Federation DGBB Foundation The Camille and Henry Dreyfus Foundation, Inc. Doris Duke Charitable Foundation The Anne and C. W. Duncan, Jr. Foundation The Ford Foundation Foundation for Child Development Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation T. H. Geballe Charitable Income Trust Golden Family Foundation William T. Grant Foundation Greenwall Foundation The Grossman Family Charitable Foundation The Harry Frank Guggenheim Foundation Heinz Endowment The Carl J. Herzog Foundation, Inc. The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation 36 Hirsh Family Foundation Howard Hughes Medical Institute Jewish Healthcare Foundation The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Jonsson Foundation The Kandell Fund Kansas Health Foundation W. M. Keck Foundation W. K. Kellogg Foundation The Lerner Foundation Richard Lounsbery Foundation The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation Josiah Macy, Jr. Foundation March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation The Marian and Speros Martel Foundation The Andrew W. Mellon Foundation The John Merck Fund Micasu Charitable Foundation, Inc. National Starch and Chemical Foundation, Inc. The New York Community Trust New York State Science and Technology Foundation The New-Land Foundation The Norcliffe Foundation The David and Lucille Packard Foundation Peninsula Community Foundation The Rockefeller Foundation Sealark Foundation The Seattle Foundation The Shepherd Foundation Alfred P. Sloan Foundation The Spencer Foundation Szekely Family Foundation Turner Foundation, Inc. Unilever United States Foundation United States-Japan Foundation

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Corporations The Aerospace Corporation Alcoa, Inc. American Home Products, Inc. American Water Works Company, Inc. Amgen, Inc. AT&T Corporation Atlantic Richfield Company Baxter Healthcare Corporation Bayer Corporation Best Foods BP America, Inc. Bristol-Myers Squibb Company Bundesamt fur Strahlenshutz The Chevron Corporation CitiGroup Computer Applications in Medicine, Inc. Corning, Inc. The Dow Chemical Company E. I. DuPont de Nemours & Company Eastman Kodak Company Elf Atochem-North America, Inc. Exxon Mobil Corporation Ferro Corporation Florida Clinical Practice Association Ford Motor Company Frito-Lay, Inc. General Electric Company GlaxoWellcome, Inc. GTE Corporation Harlan Sprague Health Service Consultants, Inc. Hewlett-Packard Company Hitachi, Ltd. Hoffmann-La Roche, Inc. Intel Corporation International Business Machines Corporation Interval Research Corporation Johnson & Johnson Kellogg Company Kemin Foods, L.C. Kraft Foods, Inc. Kulicke and Soffa Industries, Inc. Eli Lilly and Company Thomas J. Lipton Company Lord Corporation Los Alamos National Laboratory The Lubrizol Corporation Lucent Technologies, Inc. MCIWorldCom, Inc. Merck & Company, Inc. Merck Company Foundation Merck Research Laboratories Microsoft Corporation Milliken & Company Mitchell Energy & Development Corporation Mobil Corporation Molex, Inc. Monsanto Company Nabisco, Inc. National Cooperative for the Disposal of Radioactive Waste Nestle USA, Inc. The Nettleship Group NORTEL Pfizer, Inc. Philip Morris Companies, Inc. Policy Research Associates, Inc. Praxair, Inc. The Procter & Gamble Company QUALCOMM, Inc. Research Corporation Roche Vitamins, Inc. Rohm & Haas Company Semiconductor Research Corporation Severn Trent Environmental Services, Inc. SmithKline Beecham Software Construction Company Sun Microsystems, Inc. Taconic Farms, Inc. Texaco, Inc. Texas Instruments, Inc. TIAA-CREF Time Warner, Inc. U.S. Borax, Inc. Uniroyal Chemical Company United Kingdom Nirex Limited US West, Inc. Warner-Lambert Company The Whiting-Turner Contracting Company The World Bank Wyeth-Ayerst Laboratories, Inc. Xerox Corporation ~7

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Other Organizations Agate Alliance Association American Academy of Industrial Hygiene American Association of Occupational Health Nurses, Inc. American Cancer Society, Inc. American Chemical Society American College of Radiology American Educational Research Association American Feed Industry Association, Inc. American Geological Institute The American Physical Society American Public Transportation Association American Society for Microbiology American Society of Clinical Oncology American Society of Laboratory Animal Practitioners Association for Assessment & Accreditation of Lab Animal Care Association for Computing Machinery, Inc. Association of Academic Health Centers, Inc. Association of American Railroads Association of Primate Veterinarians The Brookings Institution Canadian Feed Industry Association Chemical Manufacturers Association The Dannon Research Institute Dartmouth College Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos Environmental Systems Research Institute The Institute of Applied Energy Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers Computer Society Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute The Johns Hopkins University National Council of Teachers of Mathematics National Multiple Sclerosis Society New York University Medical Center Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America Society for Neuroscience Society for the Advancement of Women's Health Research Stanford University Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company Texas Tech University University of California, Los Angeles University of California, Oakland University of Illinois University of Utah University of Washington Washington University World Health Organization In some cases, the NAS accepts partialfunding from private corporations for studies by the National Research Council. The NAS recognizes that private corporations may have a directfinancial interest in the subject matter and outcome of a study. As with any NRC study, however, the NRC requires thatfinancial sponsors have no control over the appointment of the study committee or the conduct of the study. In addition, the NRC limits the amount of financial support that can be raised from private corporations, which depending on the study is set to be between zero and 50 percent of the totalfunding for the project. The NRC makes decisions on permissible private funding on a project- by-project basis depending upon the circumstances involved in each particular situation. The list of sponsors for each NRC study is publicly available information. 38