The following HTML text is provided to enhance online
readability. Many aspects of typography translate only awkwardly to HTML.
Please use the page image
as the authoritative form to ensure accuracy.
Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa
5 G.V. Hoppa et al., “Formation of Cycloidal Features on Europa,” Science 285: 1899, 1999.
6 B.M. Jakosky and E.L. Shock, “The Biological Potential of Mars, the Early Earth, and Europa,” Journal of Geophysical Research 103: 19359, 1998.
7 E.J. Gaidos, K.H. Nealson, and J.L. Kirschvink, “Life in Ice-Covered Oceans,” Science 284: 1631, 1999.
8 T.M. McCollom, “Methanogenesis as a Potential Source of Chemical Energy for Primary Biomass Production by Autotrophic Organisms in Hydrothermal Systems on Europa,” Journal of Geophysical Research 104: 30,729, 1999.
9 C.F. Chyba, “Energy for Microbial Life on Europa,” Nature 403: 381, 2000.
10 Space Studies Board, National Research Council, A Science Strategy for the Exploration of Europa, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1999.