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OCR for page R11
Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1  1   PLANETARY PROTECTION POLICIES   3      History,   3      Protecting Mars,   3      References,   5  2   EUROPA   7      Europa Exploration Strategy,   8      Europa’s Radiation Environment,   9      References,   11  3   LIFE IN EXTREME ENVIRONMENTS   13      Extremophiles,   13      Extreme Environments,   14      References,   15  4   STERILIZATION AND CLEANING METHODS   17      Cleaning and Sterilization Standards,   17      Achieving the Standards,   17      References,   19  5   MICROBIAL DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION   20      References,   21  6   RECOMMEND PLANETARY PROTECTION STRATEGY FOR EUROPA   22      Planetary Protection Strategy for Europa,   22      Majority and Minority Viewpoints,   23      Conclusions,   24      References,   24  7   CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS   25     APPENDIXES   27     A  Calculating the Probability of Contamination, Pc,   29     B Glossary,   39

OCR for page R11
Preventing the Forward Contamination of Europa This page in the original is blank.