emphasis on team work and on skills such as writing and communicating and that these should be done more systematically at the graduate level. Third, in terms of time, I think it is unrealistic to fit things into narrow timelines. One of the consequences will be, and is already, more and more expectations of postdoctoral experience, not only in academic positions but also in industry. If we shorten the Ph.D. program, we will have more and longer postdocs. I am not sure that is a step forward.

Peter Eisenberger: I agree with you that a strong separation between graduate education and research is not right. However, to say they are the same is also not right. I think the intent in the workshop was to show that the distortion seems to be the greatest if learning is not educationally bundled but is essentially research bundled. That affects the time. I think it is a difficult question, and it is not black and white. It requires looking at the part of the research programs that is destroying the educational factors and modifying the research activity so that you don’t lose it.



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