physics, and chemical engineering. The interdisciplinary nature of this program benefits students throughout their life by providing them with a broad knowledge base. Specific issues arising in the program were also discussed. He emphasized the need for seamless, high-quality education, investments in high school education, and a commitment to lifelong learning.

Ronald T. Borchardt (University of Kansas) focused on how graduate education in the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry at the University of Kansas has evolved over the past 30 years and described how a National Institutes of Health predoctoral training grant was used to bridge the gap between traditional disciplines. In many cases, reduction of the gap has been driven by the biotechnology revolution, which demands interactions between various disciplines (e.g., chemistry and biology or pharmacy and engineering). His historical overview of the University of Kansas program covered three periods: prerevolution, postrevolution, and the future. He underscored the changes introduced to generate Ph.D. scientists who could compete effectively for jobs in the emerging biotechnology industry.

Dr. Borchardt also discussed the nonprofit Globalization of Pharmaceutics Education Network, Inc., a program started in 1996 to increase graduate students’ interactions with students and faculty from universities in other countries. Throughout, he stressed the importance of developing effective strategies oriented toward future needs.



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