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2. Preparing for the Trip Living in China is a challenging, unique experience, and it is prudent to prepare as thoroughly as possible for what must be regarded as a great adventure. No single source can provide complete advice; the pages that follow address common questions and offer tips gleaned from reports and conversations with individuals who have lived in China since the reopening of academic institutions to Americans in 1979. The observations and suggestions included here emphasize the mundane and difficult sides of life in China, but that is only because no special advice is needed to enhance the exhilaration of living there- the rewards of friendship, the benefits of travel, the satisfaction of professional achievement are part of every experience. And if life in China can be frustrating at times, it can also be great fun. It is hoped that the insights of others will help you avoid mistakes, minimize dif- ficulties, and take maximum advantage of the opportunity to live and work in China. ARRANGING TO LEAVE THE UNITED STATES Sponsoring organizations in the United States or China generally pro- vide detailed information on travel arrangements, visas, shipping pro- cedures, methods of payment while abroad, and regulations and procedures governing specific cases. Because there is constant change in regulations, services, and procedures, you should seek specific in- formation on these matters from your sponsor. The following require- ments and procedures were in effect in the autumn of 1986; they should be read as a general guide of what to expect as a long-term resident rather than as a prescription relevant to every case. 7

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8 CHINA BOUND PASSPORTS AND VISAS Passports and visas are required for travel to China. U.S. citizens who do- not hold a valid passport should apply for one through their local passport office, which is located in the post office in smaller cities. You should allow at least six weeks' turnaround time for receipt of your passport. Visas may be obtained from the Embassy of the People's Republic of China in Washington, D.C., or from one of the Chinese Consulates in San Francisco, New York, Houston, and Chicago (addresses and tele- phone numbers are included below). You can ask your sponsor for a visa form; some large travel agencies keep them in stock as well. The application must be filled out in duplicate and mailed with the pass- port, two passport photos, and a $7 visa fee (for each applicant) to the nearest embassy or consulate. (If you want express mail service, include a self-addressed express mail label along with the proper postage.) If you have severe time constraints, ask the embassy or consulate for advice on expediting the process. When you fill out the visa application, include the exact dates (if you know them) of your entry into and exit from China; if you do not know them, estimate as closely as you can. The visa will be stamped in the passport and returned, usually in 10 days to 2 weeks. Issuance of a visa hinges on your Chinese host unit's approval and its transmission of information to the appropriate consulate or to the embassy in the United States. Students' and researchers' visas are approved by the institution in China with which they will be affiliated. Teachers' visas are approved. by the State Education Commission, the Foreign Experts Bureau, the ministry responsible for particular institutions, or the foreign affairs office of the provincial government depending on the hiring unit. When you apply for the visa, send as much supporting evidence as you canincluding copies of contracts, letters of acceptance, or other documentsto prove that you are expected in China. Sometimes a visa approval is sent from China to a consulate other than the one to which the visa application was mailed; if delays occur, it is wise to check on this possibility. Be sure also to check the time span of your visa; if it expires while you are in China, it is your responsibility to have it re- newed, with the help of your host unit. At the moment, only single- entry visas to China are issued; negotiations are under way, however, to issue multiple-entry visas to Americans going to China and to Chinese coming to the United States. There have been reports of visas issued at the point of entry into China, but relying on such a procedure seems risky for the long-term visitor. Visas also can be secured in Hong Kong through one of the larger travel agencies. (No transit visa for Hong Kong is needed if you plan to stop over there.) If you plan to travel through Japan, you will not need a transit visa if your stay is less than 24 hours and is confined to Narita Airport. If

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 9 you will be leaving Narita Airport, transit visas for 72 hours or less usually can be obtained at the airport, but the wait is generally long. The transit visa is good for up to two weeks in Japan. Before leaving the United States, it is wise to apply in advance for a Japanese tourist visa; they can be obtained at the nearest Japanese Consulate and are good for four years and multiple entries. You can also apply to the Japanese Embassy in Beijing for a visa should you want to visit Japan after your arrival in China. Many American residents in China travel to Japan for medical or dental care or for recreation, shopping, or research. For the addresses of the nearest Japanese Consulate, write or call: Embassy of Japan 2514 Massachusetts Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20005 (202-234-2266) Listed below are the PRC government offices in the United States: Embassy of the People's Republic of China 2300 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20008 Commercial: 202-328-2520 Visas: 202-328-2517 Telex: 440038 PRC UI Commercial: 440673 Consulate General of the People's Republic of China 104 S. Michigan Avenue Suite 1200 Chicago, IL 60603 Administration: 312-346-0287 Consulate General of the People's Republic of China 3417 Montrose Boulevard Houston, TX 77006 Commercial: 713-524-4064 Visas: 713-524-4311 Telex: 762173 chinconsul hou Consulate General of the People's Republic of China 520 12th Avenue New York, NY 10036 Commercial: 212-564-1139 Visas: 212-279-0885 Telex: 429134 cgcny

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10 CHINA BOUND Consulate General of the People's Republic of China 1450 Laguna Avenue San Francisco, CA 94115 Commercial: 415-563-4858 Visas: 415-563-4857 Telex: 340515 chimission Ho INVITING RELATIVES TO CHINA The host unit or its parent organization (for example, the State Education Commission, the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, or the Chinese Academy~of Sciences) issues the approval for a visitor's visa. Because the host organization must clear the dates with the China Travel Service and then communicate its approval to issue the visa to the Chinese Embassy or Consulate in the United States, the process can be complicated and time consuming. Some Americans have secured Chinese tourist visas for individual travel in Hong Kong within a few days. See p. 41 for the address of the Hong Kong branch of the China Travel Service. If the wait for a visa seems unduly long, the invited party should call the Chinese Embassy in Washington, D.C. (202-328-25171. Once your relative is in China, you are responsible for securing hous- ing, which can be a problem, especially during the busy tourist season (from May through October). Some hotels will allow you to put up a cot or an extra bed for a small daily fee. Students in dormitories have also been able to make either formal or informal arrangements for housing guests for short periods. In addition to housing, you and your host institution will be responsible for arranging travel for your visitor within China. Arrangements for spouses and children planning to ac- company researchers and teachers to China are discussed in detail in Chapter 3. IMMUNIZATIONS China currently does not require immuniza- tions unless a traveler enters from an area known to have cholera or yellow fever. But recently, the Chinese press has carried articles stating that more attention will be paid to the health of those entering China and that an international health card with a record of basic immuni- zations is useful for those who plan to stay in China a year or longer. There are a number of immunizations that are recommended or that should be considered, in consultation with your personal physician, depending on your health history, the length of your stay in China, and where you will be living and traveling. Some of these are discussed below. Useful information about relevant immunizations, diseases, and

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 11 prevention can be found in Healt1? Information for International Travel, available for $4.50 from: Superintendent of Documents U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, DC 20402 (202-783-3238) (When ordering, refer to publication no. HHS 86-8280.) For information on health conditions in developing countries, contact International Travel Clinic Johns Hopkins University Hampton House 624 N. Broadway Baltimore, MD 21205 (301 -955-8931) Tetanus remains a problem in China, and physicians usually rec- ommend the complete series of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DPT) vaccine and a booster dose (given every 10 years) for anyone over the age of 7. Children under seven should have the number of doses ap- propriate for their age. Typhoid vaccinations are recommended for travelers who will be living away from the usual tourist areas, in places where water or food sources may be contaminated and where typhoid is known to be endemic. In addition, because poliomyelitis is endemic in all developing countries, travelers who have completed the primary series of polio vaccinations should consult their physician for advice on supplementary doses. Measles, mumps, and rubella also are not controlled in developing countries. In particular, pregnant travelers should be immunized against rubella. Viral hepatitis, type A, is widespread in China but does not present a particular threat to those who stay along the normal tourist routes. Nevertheless, you should consult your physician about the advisability of receiving immune globulin as prophylaxis for this type of hepatitis. Immune globulin is effective only for three to six months and is not available in China to renew your protection. Some long-term residents bring in the serum and arrange to store it in China. In deciding whether to obtain hepatitis A vaccine and/or chloroquine medicine for ma- laria, which still occurs in some areas you should discuss your life- style and the extent of your planned travels with your personal phy- . . slclan. Vaccination against Japanese encephalitis is strongly advised al- though not required. The disease, which can cause serious brain damage and even death, is transmitted by mosquitoes and occurs mainly from June through September in rural Asian areas, although there have been

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12 CHINA BOUND cases in urban centers. There is no risk during the winter in temperate areas of China. All travelers to China, but especially those individuals who will be living or traveling for prolonged periods in rural areas, should take precautions against mosquito bites and consult their phy- sicians regarding immunization. The Japanese encephalitis vaccine has been tested in the United States but is available only from specified Japanese encephalitis investigators. For a list of these Appendix F. and for further information, contact: Division of Vector-Borne Viral Diseases Center for Infectious Diseases Centers for Disease Control P.O. Box 2087 Ft. Collins, CO 80522 (303-22 1 -6428) individuals, see The U.S. Embassy in Beijing also provides immunizations through a series of three shots at nominal cost Y15 each. Although the official Chinese government regulations affecting for- eign students, researchers, and teachers in China and the health cer- tificate required from such persons have not yet been changed, the Chinese Embassy in Washington, D.C., reports that all Americans who will be in China for one year or longer are required to be tested for AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) prior to commencing their program in China. You may be tested in the United States within two months prior to departure for China and must take a medical certificate with you stating that you do not have AIDS. It is recom- mended that you have the test in the United States to facilitate your entry into China and the commencement of your academic program there. If you are planning to be in China less than one year, you do not need to be tested for AIDS. However, if you originally plan to be in China less than one year and then extend your stay beyond a year, you will have to be tested for AIDS in China. Since no official regulations about the AIDS testing have yet been published in English, officials of the Chinese Embassy caution that the above are only general guidelines. You should check with the Chinese Embassy or Consulates about updated information on AIDS testing needed for China as you prepare for your trip. MEDICAL INSURANCE Travelers are strongly advised to retain their existing insurance policies; they should also discuss with their insurance companies how much coverage they will have abroad and how to apply for reimbursement of services rendered in China. Most Chinese health administrators will not be familiar with long, compli-

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 13 cased insurance forms, and direct billing of insurance companies is unlikely. It is therefore a matter of some importance to clarify the procedures to be followed before you leave the United States. Those who cannot maintain coverage through their home institutions should consider two insurance programs for which the National As- sociation for Foreign Student Affairs acts as a policyholder. Individuals under the age of 65 who meet the following criteria are eligible for coverage from Hinchcliff International, Inc.: (1) they must be engaged full time in international educational activities, (2) they must be temporarily outside their home country or country of regular domicile as a nonresident alien, and (3) they may not be applicants for permanent residency status in the country they are visiting. Eligible dependents with a similar visa or passport who accompany the major policyholder include spouses under the age of 65 and unmarried chil- dren under the age of 19 who are chiefly dependent on the major pol- icyholder for support and maintenance. Further information and application forms can be obtained from: Hinchcliff International, Inc. 120 S. Cayuga Street Ithaca, NY 14850 (607-272-5057) Full-time students under the age of 40 who are actively engaged in international educational activities outside their home country can write for information and applications to: Marsh & McLennan Group Associates Accident and Sickness Department 121 1 Avenue of the Americas New York, NY 10036 (2 1 2-997-8 1 1 6) MONEY, BANKING, AND CREDIT CARDS Americans who will be paid by U.S. sources while in China can receive money directly in two ways: 1. Money can be deposited in a designated account in a U.S. bank that has an international division with correspondent relations with China (many major banks in large cities offer this service); funds can then be wired to a Chinese bank account as needed. 2. Money can be wired directly to a Chinese bank account. Fund transfers to China for the most part are now routine, but before your departure you should clarify with the U.S. bank how these trans-

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14 CHINA BOUND actions are managed. Anyone who plans to stay in China longer than a few months should open a U.S. dollar bank account with the Bank of China. Banking regulations vary from place to place, and policies change constantly. The following information is only a guide to a variety of current situations. Most long-term residents advise that you carry a good supply of traveler's checks. All the major brands are honored, but American Express traveler's checks can be purchased at designated branches of the Bank of China in 20 cities. In addition, the company has an office in Beijing (in the lobby of the Beijing-Toronto Hotel) and will arrange for reimbursement for lost checks within a few days in major cities. Traveler's checks offer a slightly higher rate of exchange than cash, and they can be converted at any Bank of China service desk located in airports, major hotels, and stores that serve foreigners. A 1 percent service fee is charged for cashing traveler's checks. Because payroll and third-party checks cannot be cashed under any circumstances and personal or bank checks take at least one month to clear, obtaining cash in China can sometimes present problems. Res- idents of Beijing, Nanjing, and Shanghai report that by far the most useful method of obtaining cash is to write a personal check on a U.S. bank account and then guarantee it with an American Express card. According to American Express officials, at designated branches of the Bank of China in 42 cities, you may write a personal check for up to Y500 with an American Express green card and Y2,000 with a gold card. (The official exchange rate in January 1987 was Y3.71 to US$1.00.) Residents of other cities, however, advise different arrangements, for example, international money orders. Unfortunately, there are no standard banking regulations in China, and what may be true in one city may not hold in another. For instance, a teacher in Jinan states that the American Express card cannot be used there and instead ad- vises travelers to obtain money from home through international money orders, which can be cashed immediately. In other areas of China, however, international money orders may take a month to clear. And a teacher in Guangzhou reports that Visa is accepted there for cashing checks but that American Express is not. Although American Express international offices in the United States report that regulations and services are constantly in flux as new agree- ments are signed with China, at this writing, within a 21-day period, you can cash up to a total of US$1,000 with an American Express green card and up to US$2,000 with a gold card. As cash, you must receive foreign exchange certificates, which can be reconverted to dollars at your point of exit if accompanied by all of your exchange memos. Also, Visa and MasterCard will provide cash advances of up to US$350 in

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 15 major cities at designated Bank of China service counters (the service charge is 4 percent). Credit cards can be used for some purchases, but policies are changing because of fraudulent use of the cards and it is unwise to count on using them for major payments. American Express advises that only major hotels, retail stores (such as Friendship Stores and other stores catering to foreigners), and restaurants authorized by the Bank of China will accept credit cards. It is safest to convert money at a Bank of China counter before making purchases. To help you plan your finances, Appendix G includes sample prices for hotels, food, services, transportation, clothing, and medical care. For further information on currency and banking, see Chapter 6. CUSTOMS REGULATIONS On the final leg of your flight into China, you will be given a customs declaration form on which you must list any cameras, tape recorders, valuable jewelry, or typewriters being brought into the country and the amount of currency and traveler's checks on your person. The form will be checked at the customs desk at the baggage claim area in most airports and you will be given a copy, which must be presented each time you leave the country. If you cannot prove that you are taking out all that you declared upon entry, you will be assessed a fairly stiff fine. If you lose any of the declared items while in China, notify your host unit immediately. Foreigners entering China may bring up to four bottles of liquor, 600 cigarettes, an unlimited supply of medicine for personal use (be sure that it is carried in its original labeled container), personal effects, and an unlimited amount of currency and traveler's checks. There are no restrictions on still cameras, 8mm cameras, or film, but professional film and video equipment may not be brought in or taken out of China without special permission. Appendix H lists items that can be taxed upon entry into China if they are not for personal use. Americans going to Shanghai should note that the U.S. Consulate General there has received frequent complaints that Chinese customs officials in Shanghai routinely assess and collect unusually high cus- toms duties, particularly for supplies forwarded as unaccompanied bag- gage or sent through the international mail. Shanghai customs has published a pamphlet that lists prohibited and restricted items and gives some ballpark duty figures. Although this information cannot be taken to be definitive, it does give prospective American residents an idea of potential customs hassles. If you are going to live in the Shanghai consular district, which includes the provinces of Jiangsu, Anhui, and Zhejiang, you should request a copy of this pamphlet from your Chinese host as you prepare to leave the United States.

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16 CHINA BOUND According to the pamphlet, Articles prohibited entry include not only the usual firearms, wire- less transmitters, drugs, plants, contaminated foodstuffs, and Chinese currency but also, and much more ambiguously, "publications, pho- tographs, tapes, records and any other material harmful to Chinese politics, economy, culture or morals." o Certain articles are allowed entry only in restricted quantity: wrist watches, pocket watches, and bicycles at one per person; cameras, ra- dios, and sewing machines at one per family. Listed rates of duty are high: 20 percent for grains, flours, medical equipment, scientific instruments, and electronic calculators; 50 per- cent for medicines, home and office equipment, tape recorders, tools, televisions, sports equipment, and musical instruments; 100 percent or higher (lSO or 200 percent) for all other items. In addition, some advice for minimizing customs problems includes the following: o Bring in as accompanied baggage as many personal supplies as possible since personally accompanied baggage usually receives the most favorable treatment by Chinese customs officials. o Heavy books and other professional supplies are best shipped sep- arately; your Chinese host institution should be requested to handle customs clearance as part of its support for your activities in China. o You should be prepared to encounter what you might judge to be arbitrary and excessive customs duties levied on any packages sent by international mail. Some Americans who will be in China for extended periods of time have requested information about bringing their pets. Personnel at the Chinese Embassy in Washington, D.C., have stated that although bring- ing animals into China is not prohibited, it is unwise to do so. Chinese customs officers are extremely strict about quarantining animals, and often this results in the animal being quarantined for about as long as the American remains in China. When you leave the United States, be sure to register with U.S. cus- toms officials any cameras or other equipment subject to duty that you are taking with you to China. Save the receipts to present upon reentry into the United States so that you are not taxed on items made in Asia that you bought prior to departure. A useful booklet, Customs Hints for Returning U.S. Citizens: Know Before You Go, is available free of charge from the: U.S. Customs Service 1301 Constitution Avenue, NW Washington, DC 20229

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 17 and from most travel agents. Travelers returning to the United States from China can bring back, duty free, purchases of up to US$400 per person; an additional US$1,000 worth of goods will be taxed at a rate of 10 percent. Regular duty charges, which are considerably higher, apply to purchases exceeding the initial US$1,400. Special rates and exemptions are given to Americans who live abroad for over one year. If you have a letter of invitation or appointment stating that you will be residing in China for one year or longer, be certain to show it to U.S. customs officials on your return to the United States. BAGGAGE AND SHIPPING PROCEDURES It is best to "travel light" if you wish to avoid excess baggage charges. Passengers flying to China are allowed two pieces of luggage, neither of which may exceed 62 inches (adding all three linear dimensions); both pieces together may not exceed 106 inches. The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), the Chinese national carrier, calculates limits by weight; econ- omy-class passengers are allowed two bags, which may not exceed a total of 44 pounds (or 20 kilograms). In addition, travel agents advise that carry-on allowances are becoming stricter on all airlines. Baggage allowances for traveling within Asia, including China, are also calculated by weight; the 44-pound limit applies in most countries. Thus, it is possible that if you travel within China, or if you stop in Hong Kong or Tokyo or Shanghai, for example, before going on to your final destination in China, you may be charged for excess baggage weight even though you stayed within the limit on your U.S. carrier. Excess baggage charges for groups are levied on the entire group. For long-term stays, items may be shipped ahead by mail (allow two to three months for sea mail) in care of the foreign affairs office of your host institution. However, used clothing, even for personal use, cannot be sent through the mails. (See Appendix H for current regulations governing articles sent into China.) Of particular note are the special book rates that apply to Chinacheck with your local post office for details. One returned scholar reports that the U.S. Postal Service will supply used post office bags that can be filled with boxed printed matter (15 pounds minimum, per bag 66 pounds maximum); the bags go by surface mail (six to eight weeks in transit) for 43 cents a pound. Several airlines will accept large parcels as air freight; check with the cargo division of the airlines for details. (It is best to schedule air shipments after your own arrival in China so you can pick them up and clear them through customs.) INCOME TAXES WHILE ABROAD In the summer of 1986, the tax agreement between the United- States and the People's Republic of

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30 CHINA BOUND by the original sales slip and some stores will buy back Western-made appliances as well. Unfortunately, however, used appliances are not for sale to foreigners. OFFICE SUPPLIES, TYPEWRITERS, PERSONAL COMPUTERS For the most reliable, worry-free typing, you should take a standard manual typewriter with extra ribbons. High-quality, manual Chinese typewriters are expensive at Y300. Typewriter repair shops for manual models are relatively easy to find, and they also sell standard ribbons. Some Americans recommend battery-powered portable typewriters, but they caution that some brands require special paper that is not always available in China. A teacher recommends taking a typewriter with a carriage at least 105 characters wide for typing stencil blanks. And one researcher writes that he has been quite pleased with the operation of all his equipment; a battery-operated computer and printer that uses a battery-replacement transformer with a 220/110 Franzus 50-watt transformer (which, by the way, should not be left plugged in too long), as well as a 220-volt battery recharger that offers a constant electrical current. Zenith and Hewlett-Packard are popular models of battery-operated computers. Long-lasting alkaline batteries are not al- ways available, though, and if you expect to rely on battery power, you should take a good supply with you. Erratic supplies of electricity and servicing problems are two diffi- culties electric typewriter and computer owners frequently face. One scientist writes, "Microcomputers are adversely affected by the power supply problem, and their use requires considerable patience and effort. For example, a set of data may have to be entered several times since each time the electricity is interrupted, all information which has been entered but not yet stored is wiped out. Furthermore, computer hard- ware in general does not last as long as it does with normal usage in the United States since the large voltage fluctuations frequently burn or damage the computer circuits." Some teachers report, however, that an electric typewriter operated with a large Chinese-made transformer works quite well. Despite the problems, Chinese organizations are using computers more and more, and foreigners also find them useful albeit with the following cautions: (1) take a surge protector that you are certain can adjust to 220 volts; (2) take a transformer with the capacity to handle the voltage of a computer; and (3) take as many kinds of converter plugs as you can find an international kit is a good idea. In the case of repairs, you should not count on help unless you live in a city with special repair shops or where representatives of your particular com- puter's company are in residence, although repair service may be fairly

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 31 readily available if your Chinese host unit deals frequently with im- ported computers. When asked what items they recommend for an academic visit to China, most respondents mention office supplies correction fluid, car- bon paper, manila file folders, tape, paper clips, a good pencil shar- pener, book mailers for mailing small items home, colored pencils, magic markers, good-quality bond typing paper, lined notebook paper, and gluesticks. Manila envelopes, file cards, and boxes usually can be found at stationery stores in China. Desk lamps also are sold, but some travelers prefer to take their folding high-intensity lamps with them from home. RADIOS AND TAPE RECORDERS A small AM/FM shortwave tran- sistor radio is useful for language practice and for news from outside China. Beijing Radio offers a special Chinese-English program (for schedules, see the China Daily); Voice of America (VOA) schedules, which change four times a year, can be obtained from the U.S. Embassy. China Daily, the English-language newspaper available in most major Chinese cities, offers useful information about television and radio broadcasts in Chinese. If you buy a shortwave radio, be sure that the shortwave bands go at least to 23 KHz to tune in VOA and U.S. Armed Forces programs. Small transistor radios can be purchased in China and are adequate for local stations, but they are not powerful enough to bring in broad- casts from outside the country. Most foreign-made radios and tape recorders can now be repaired in Beijing and Shanghai. Imported and Chinese-made cassette recorders also can be purchased now in China, but they are expensive. Blank cassette tapes are easy to buy, but they are not of the best quality; taking a supply with you is worth the trouble, especially if you will be studying the language, since most language schools do not have good language laboratory facilities. In most cities you can purchase recorded music, mainly classical Chinese and Western selections, but Chinese pop music is available, too. Most foreigners take their favorite music with them, wish they had brought more, and find that these tapes make fine gifts for Chinese friends and teachers when they leave. CAMERAS AND FILM Color film is easier to buy in China now than it was a few years ago, but recent experience shows that it is still a good idea to take most film with you. Travelers to major tourist cities, like Xi'an, have been surprised to find that color film is unavailable even in tourist hotels. Both Kodak and Fuji film are available in major

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32 CHINA BOUND cities, but in general print film is easier to buy than slide film. Disk film is not yet for sale in most cities although Guangzhou's Friendship Store does carry it. Some hotels even carry Polaroid film. Film prices in China are about the same as they are in the United States. Black- and-white film is easily purchased and processed, and many hotels now offer color film processing services. The Jianguo in Beijing has one-day service, and the Friendship Hotel develops film reasonably (Y14 for 24 color prints, Y21 for 36 color prints, and Y7.50 for 36 color slides). Be sure to tell the service personnel that you want your slides mounted. The quality of processing generally is reliable, and most long-term residents feel that it is safer to process exposed film than to carry it through airport inspections or to store it in extreme temperatures. Prepaid Kodachrome film cannot be developed in China, but it can be sent out to Hong Kong or Australia. Some post offices provide film mailers, and there have been few reported problems sending film out of China. Videocassettes are a special case, however, and cannot be taken in or out of the country without inspection and special permis- sion. (See the earlier section on customs regulations for cameras and film.) If you go to Hong Kong during your stay in China to purchase photographic equipment, be sure to check with your host unit about customs regulations. The U.S. Embassy issues the following advice about taking pictures: refrain from photographing airports, bridges, harbors, military facili- ties, soldiers, policemen, and wall posters. And always ask permission before taking a direct picture of an individual taking pictures without asking permission is discourteous and has led to some incidents in which film has been confiscated. It should be noted, however, that Chinese parents seem very receptive to having their children photo- graphed if you ask politely. BICYCLES If you are traveling to China by way of Hong Kong, you can purchase a bicycle there and take it with you. But if you decide to leave the bike in China when you depart, you will have to pay import duty. In China bicycles are still relatively expensive, and choices are limited to the heavy Huffy type. Opinions about the relative merits of different brands varyask your Chinese and foreign friends for advice before you buy. If you purchase your bicycle in a local shop, you will need a letter of permission from your host unit because bicycles are rationed. A new bicycle now costs from Y180 to Y200; prices for a used bicycle in good condition begin around Y80. All bicycles must be reg- istered again, ask your host unit for guidance. Although foreigners routinely sell bikes among themselves, this practice is illegal; bicycles in good condition should be resold only to the local Friendship Store for at least half the purchase price.

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 33 Used bicycle shops are fairly common in larger cities, and bicycle repair shops can be found in every neighborhood. Repairs are inex- pensive: a complete overhaul may cost as little as Y10. Check any new or used bike carefully, however, before leaving the shop, and buy a bike light and reflecting tape for the front and back fenders for safety. Many riders carry repair kits with lockwashers of various sizes and other tools for repairs on the road. Theft is not uncommon in China; so you should keep your bike locked and park it in one of the many bicycle parking lots when shopping. If your stay in China will be relatively short, you might want to rent a bicycle. In Beijing the rental shop is just opposite the Friendship Store; personnel at tourist hotels or local China International Travel Service offices can provide information on rentals in other areas. I.D. PHOTOS When you register with the local public security bu- reau, you must provide passport-sized photos for library cards, swim- ming passes, and diplomas. You can take along 10 or more extra copies of photos or have them done in China (the turnaround time is about two days). READING MATERIAL If you will be living in Beijing, you will find a good selection of reading matter in the stores catering to foreigners. Most of the paperback books are Penguin publications. Western news- papers and magazines are usually on sale within a week of publication; the Asian Wall Street Journal, International Herald Tribune, Time, News- wee1<, Reader's Digest, and Far Eastern Economic Review are the most popular. There are also more Chinese novels and poetry in translation now than in years past. Some familiarity with Chinese classical and popular writing is both informative and educational; it also provides a rich source of conversation with Chinese colleagues and friends. One important publication for the foreign community is the China Daily, which is published in English, distributed free in some hotels, and sold for Y0.10 in certain stores. Unlike most other publications in China, the China Daily notes restaurant specials and art exhibits; pro- vides local entertainment schedules; reviews current theatre, opera, and films; lists Radio Beijing and TV programs; publishes daily ex- change rates; and provides minimal coverage of Chinese and world news. The editorial section, in particular, is invaluable to the non- Chinese speaker because major pieces from the Chinese press are often translated there. GAMES -Board games can be fun for relaxation with friends, both Chinese and foreign; and word games like Scrabble and Password pro-

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34 CHINA BOUND vice novel ways of teaching English. Puzzles too can be useful for long winter Sundays and they make thoughtful gifts for Chinese friends with families when you leave. If you are taking children with you, it is a good idea to pack their favorite toys and a few special decorations and treats for American holidays. GIFTS Anticipating what kinds of gifts you should take is a problem for the prospective China traveler. Gifts to Chinese colleagues and friends, and to those who help out along the way drivers, for example must be chosen and given with care. Too lavish a gift will create embar- rassment, and yet the days when a supply of ballpoint pens would suffice for any occasion are over. Chinese ballpoint pens now are quite inexpensive and of good quality. Many of your Chinese acquaintances will have been abroad and have accumulated some of the trinkets that were once deemed satisfactory gifts. As one student warns, beware of underestimating the sophistication of your Chinese friends. Well-chosen books and scholarly materials are always appropriate for advisers and academic colleagues. Scholars also appreciate Chinese calligraphy manuals, which are expensive in Chinese terms. Tapes of Western clas- sical music are easier to buy in China now than they once were, but they are still a good gift. And art books and colorful calendars with scenes of U.S. life also are appropriate presents, as are English dic- tionaries and study guides and tapes for learning English. One researcher took a beautifully printed greeting from the president of his university to his Chinese hosts, who enjoyed the calligraphy. Others have presented digital clocks, solar-powered calculators, and cooking aids (for example, can openers and potato peelers). If you are invited to a home for dinner, you might take along some imported candy or wine, or cookies in a decorative tin, all of which can be found in Friendship Stores and hotels. According to Chinese sources, it is ap- propriate to present gifts to the women and children of the family on these occasions. Selections of stamps and intricate jigsaw puzzles are popular gifts for children. You should not be surprised, however, if the recipient does not open the gift immediately; it is customary to wait until later. A banquet is still an excellent way to repay hospitality you might ask your colleagues to suggest favorite restaurants. (One American cou- ple who favored a particular crispy duck restaurant in Beijing discov- ered from a close Chinese friend that such food was not considered proper banquet fare; they chose a seafood place instead.) Invite a few good friends and helpful colleagues, and try to encourage a relaxed atmosphere; the formal banquet is no longer considered an enjoyable means to meet with friends. Banquets can be expensive Y50 or more

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 35 per person in most good restaurants. An alternative might be to invite friends out for lunch for example, to a local restaurant or the coffee shop of one of the hotels. As "normal" relations with Chinese friends become ever more pos- sible, traditional boundaries blur and reticence lessens. Today you can simply ask a trusted Chinese friend for advice about gifts. Your Chinese acquaintances, in turn, may well let you know directly what they want or need. But if some of the mystery has gone out of gift giving in China, courtesy demands that you remain sensitive nonetheless to the obli- gations and implications of a gift in that culture. WHAT TO TAKE FOR PROFESSIONAL LIFE BOOKS Most scholars with experience in China advise you to take any and all printed materials that are essential for your research and writing, including reference works. Even dictionaries published in China are sometimes hard to obtain, so be certain to take along the ones you need. Publishing is active in China, but new publications are often sold out soon after they reach the stores. It is also unwise to rely on library holdings or on access to them; even major secondary works in your field simply may not be available. Experienced bibliophiles have discovered that you can now order directly from publishers based in China or visit their distribution cen- ters to obtain books. And out-of-print books and back issues of journals sometimes can be found in used bookstores. Used bookstores in out-of- the-way spots may be virtual treasure troves. Bookstores in the newly renovated antique district in Beijing, Liulichang, often are a good source of books on early China. When you travel around the country, be sure to explore local bookstores; some cities such as Xi 'an and Lanzhou, for example, have stores devoted to ancient history, stocking items that are hard to find in the larger cities. Ask your Chinese colleagues for advice, and offer to share your finds with them. Many scholars report that they have borrowed books from Chinese academics who have better private collections in their field than some libraries. In any case, if you see a book that you need, don't wait buy it immediately. Periodicals in Chinese may be ordered at the post office. A useful guide, arranged by subject, to newspapers and periodicals published in China is available from: China International Book Trading Corporation (Guoji Shudian) P.O. Box 2820 Beijing, China

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36 CHINA BOUND (See also later sections on access to materials and the post office in Chapters 4 and 6, respectively, for the accepted wisdom about obtaining materials while in China.) As you prepare for your journey, you should understand that in China you will almost certainly be asked to speak, either formally or infor- mally, about the latest developments in your field. Take along any references that might be useful to you in answering what may well be quite wide-ranging questions. There is also a great deal of curiosity about U.S. life in general, and you must be prepared to talk knowl- edgeably about a variety of topics from current slang and films to the intricate workings of the U.S. Congress. An almanac, according to one teacher, was "worth its weight in goldwe used ours every day"; a good paperback English dictionary and thesaurus are handy and make appropriate gifts for Chinese friends when you leave. In addition, the press and cultural section of the U.S. Embassy has a library that can be tapped, but its holdings are limited. A standard survey of Chinese history, guidebooks that describe your particular city, and up-to-date tourist handbooks are all important references. Kaplan and Sobin's Encyclopedia oiChina Today is useful, as is The China Guidebook by Kaplan, Sobin, and de Keijzer. Brian Schwartz's China Offt1~e Beaten Tracic is a favorite of adventurous types- likewise, China A Travel Survival Kit, by Alan Samagalski and Michael Buckley. The more detailed and scholarly Nagel's Encyclopedic Guide to China offers historical information and is well worth the price ($65) in the opinion of some academic tourists. Many of these guidebooks are now on sale in hotels and Friendship Stores in Beijing; see also Appendix L for complete publishing details. The non-China specialist also might find that a subscription to the China Daily for a few months before departure will be good preparation for current events in China (both political and cultural); it can be ordered from: China Daily U.S. Distributor 15 Mercer Street New York, NY 10013 (212-219-0130) EQUIPMENT Duplicating facilities are limited in China, and if gathering and copying materials is essential for your work, you may want to take a portable copier with a heavy-duty transformer. A tape recorder can be an important aid to research as well. Calculators are fairly easy to buy in China, but do not expect to find computers and software in your host institution. Instead, write ahead for information on what is available, and take your own software. Fortran is still the most common language. (See also the section above on office supplies and machines.)

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 37 Most returned scientists report that they took with them to China almost all of their basic equipment. For instance, a biologist writes: "Only basic research needs were offered for use . . . an office/laboratory was provided, but all necessary research equipment, including micro- scope, handling utensils, plastic petri dishes, vials, and cups, was brought with me as baggage. If unusual items were needed, requests were usu- ally forthcoming but often not very promptly, and the delays sometimes outlasted the need." Another scientist warns colleagues preparing for a China trip that simple household materials such as Clorox necessary for research work are not available. It is critically important that you list all of your project needs well in advance when writing to your host unit and that you ask to be notified if specific items are not on hand. Be sure to specify the quantities you need; most Chinese scientists do not use disposable equipment and may not have adequate supplies- for instance, of laboratory glassware in stock. A geologist who needed detailed maps for his project found that some maps were not open to scrutiny by foreigners. He recommends that anyone who needs maps for a project find out not only what is available but also what can be used. A scientist who needed a particular chemical to perform an experiment had serious problems having it sent from his university lab in the United States to his Chinese unit. His experience suggests that prior arrangements for obtaining these items be made with your home institution before you leave. If you send equipment ahead, send it in care of your host unit's foreign affairs office. Some airlines offer nonstop parcel service between a few major U.S. cities and Beijing and Shanghai. If you plan to use audiovisual equipment in China, write ahead to your hosts to let them know exactly what you need. Some organizations have overhead projectors, but you should bring your own transpar- encies and marking pens. Most also have slide projectors' although screens apparently are scarcer and quite often the projectors are not in working order. One returned scholar observed that the slide projec- tors in his relatively affluent Beijing institution "must have come with Marco Polo." With equipment, then, as with all other aspects of life in China, you can only try to plan ahead and then be patient when it fails to work and grateful when it does. In such matters, a sense of humor is always invaluable. OTHER SCHOLARLY MATERIALS You should be prepared to submit to your colleagues a detailed research proposal (ideally, in Chinese) soon after your arrival in China. Researchers and graduate students also suggest that you take an updated resume, offprints of your pub- lications and books, and copies of major papers.

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38 CHINA BOUND If you plan to lecture, you might wish to prepare outlines or abstracts for handouts. If you will be working with interpreters, a dictionary that specializes in the technical terminology of your discipline can be of great use. Business cards printed, if possible, in both Chinese and Eng- lish are also convenient; they can be made inexpensively in China or in Hong Kong. TEACHING AIDS The teachers surveyed for this handbook had taught a variety of subjects in China, and they all strongly urged pro- spective teachers to take with them as many books and materials as possible because there is a serious shortage of English-language text- books in China. (Teachers of such courses as law and management in particular said there were few if any pertinent books available.) Even university libraries were not too useful, according to these teachers; many of the books in the libraries on the subject matter they taught were outdated and badly organized. Another drawback mentioned was the closed stack policy of most university libraries in China; students are not able to browse among the books to see what would be of interest. These teachers did find that some department libraries contained ex- cellent books, but even in these there were sometimes problems in arranging access for the students. It is probably best to take some of the most highly used and regarded books in your field with you; you can then donate them to your Chinese host institution upon departure. If you will be teaching English, you should also obtain information about the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) and take TOEFL books and tapes with you. Because of the shortage of books, some teachers reported photo- copying or dittoing articles from books they had brought to give to their students, but this is usually difficult. Duplicating facilities are limited at most institutions; some only have mimeograph machines, and photocopiers are scarcer still- a major university may have only one copier to serve an entire campus while smaller institutions may have none at all. Even if your institution has a copier you may have to pay for copying yourself. There is also no guarantee the copier will work reliably; repairing copiers is even more difficult in China than in the United States. In sum, you should not count on duplicating large or even small volumes of materials in China. If you plan to use unbound materials, you should either take multiple copies with you or plan to have them copied at a hotel or neighborhood copy shop at a cost of from Y0.15 to Y0.50 per page. If you plan to use audiovisual aids, be sure to read the preceding sections on equipment and review the customs regulations on video- tapes and films. Some institutions do have overhead projectors, but

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PREPARING FOR THE TRIP 39 teachers have found that at times their classes were so large, it was not practical to use transparencies as a teaching aid. Slide projectors are fairly common and teachers do recommend taking slides to use in clas- ses. Also, reel-to-reel tape recorders are frequently available. Cassette recorders are becoming more and more common, but high-quality tapes are still not on the market. Some teachers found that they could arrange for films and videotapes to be shown, but if the department for which they work does not have the necessary equipment, it may be charged for the use of such equipment. Also, the equipment and rooms for view- ing must be reserved in advance, and in some cases, tapes must be submitted to institution authorities one week in advance of the showing to be reviewed. The following information on videocassette recorders (VCRs) in China and VCR tapes to be taken into China was received from the U.S. Embassy in Beijing. Multistandard VCRs are widely available but fre- quently are standard play (fast speed) only. Persons taking NTSC ex- tended or long play tapes to China may have difficulty. VHS is the most common format used, although many institutions also have 3/-inch U- matic or Beta formats. Equipment must be 200 volts, 50 cycles; 120- volt transformers are available in China but are expensive. The more serious consideration concerns cycles: electricity in China is 50 cycles as opposed to 60 cycles in the United States. Therefore, unless a player is rated 50 cYcles. it will not operate oronerlY. Americans planning to . . . . . . . . . ~ . . . . take videocassettes to China are advised to inform their institutions early on and to inquire what sort of equipment is available. Moreover, Chinese customs usually wants to examine all videotapes being taken into the country and may retain tapes at the port of entry. It is best not to take tapes into China that might be considered pornographic or politically sensitive. Most returned teachers recommended that you write ahead to your host unit for details on their particular arrangements. In addition, you can talk with returned teachers and possibly even consider taking your own equipment, such as a slide projector with transformers, if you think it worth the effort. If you plan to donate equipment to your Chinese institution when you leave, be certain when you arrive to have your unit register it with Chinese customs officials as a duty-free educational item. Teachers who have taught in China offer a number of ideas for pro- viding students with course materials. (Books available in China can of course be used, but you will probably want to supplement them with U.S. materials.) You may apply to certain U.S. or community funding agencies that offer grants for books; or, if you have been awarded a Fulbright scholarship' you will be given a book allowance with which to purchase materials. Some teachers have typed course assignments on ditto masters and made direct transfer stencils of materials which

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40 CHINA BOUND were then duplicated in China. Duplicated articles about current events from The New Yore< Times, Newsweelc, Foreign Affairs, and other peri- odicals are avidly read by students and are a good form of language instruction because of their sophisticated vocabulary. You may also want to clip articles of current interest from magazines and newspapers to use as the basis for class discussions. Chinese students, however, are accustomed to the lack of textbooks; they take meticulous notes during class; and if lectures are concise and well constructed, they can manage quite well without textbooks, although they often use their own ref- erence books in Chinese to supplement English lecture notes. It is very likely that during your stay in China someone will ask you to give a talk about American culture. Consequently, you may want to bring slides and photographs showing various aspects of life in the United Statesfor example, shots of supermarkets, airports, subways, family life, holiday celebrations, city street scenes, farms, parks, schools, and the like can be of great interest to Chinese students who have had little opportunity to glimpse everyday life abroad. Returned teachers also stress balancing "the good and the bad" when discussing life in the United States. Information about higher education in the United States is always welcome in China, and your hosts and students will appreciate any catalogs, course syllabi, or descriptive material that you can share with them. The U.S. government has placed collections of educational ref- erence materials at 18 sites in China; the locations of these collections and the list of their materials are in Appendix K. U.S. colleges and universities have been requested to send their catalogs to these sites. Finally, in terms of what books to take to China, returned teachers recommend the following: as many basic reference books as possible, several good dictionaries and encyclopedias, your favorite books at various levels on the subject matter you will be teaching, anthologies of American and British literature, Bartlett's Quotations, references on American culture, a copy of the U.S. Constitution, novels, a good atlas, standard grammar books, maps of the United States and the world in English, and a world almanac. As one teacher put it, "I can't think of anything not to take, except maybe pornographic literature. That is frowned upon, but the Chinese are remarkably open about what you bring for your own reading or for sharing with Chinese friends." In addition to the guidebooks on China mentioned earlier, an excel- lent preparation specifically for teaching in China is a recently pub- lished book by two Americans, Tani Barlow and Donald Lowe, who taught literature and history in Shanghai from 1981 to 1982. Their thoughtful and detailed account, Chinese Reflections: American Teach- ing in the People's Republic, is well worth reading. (See Appendix L for publication information.)