2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program

Committee for the Review of ONR’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program

Naval Studies Board

Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications

National Research Council

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
Washington, D.C.



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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program 2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program Committee for the Review of ONR’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program Naval Studies Board Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications National Research Council NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This work was performed under Department of the Navy Contract N00014-96-D-0169/0001 issued by the Office of Naval Research under contract authority NR 201-124. However, the content does not necessarily reflect the position or the policy of the Department of the Navy or the government, and no official endorsement should be inferred. The United States Government has at least a royalty-free, nonexclusive, and irrevocable license throughout the world for government purposes to publish, translate, reproduce, deliver, perform, and dispose of all or any of this work, and to authorize others so to do. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07138-0 Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences . All rights reserved. Copies available from: Naval Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program COMMITTEE FOR THE REVIEW OF ONR’S MARINE CORPS SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM BRUCE WALD, Center for Naval Analyses, Chair ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University A. DOUGLAS CARMICHAEL, Massachusetts Institute of Technology SABRINA R. EDLOW, Center for Naval Analyses BRIG “CHIP” ELLIOTT, BBN Technologies CHARLES A. FOWLER, C.A. Fowler Associates RAY “M” FRANKLIN, Port Angeles, Washington DAVID B. KASSING, The Arroyo Center, RAND R. KENNETH LOBB, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University IRWIN MENDELSON, Singer Island, Florida HERBERT RABIN, University of Maryland DAVID A. RICHWINE, AFCEA International CHARLES H. SINEX, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University MICHAEL G. SOVEREIGN, Monterey, California JOSEPH ZEIDNER, Bethesda, Maryland Staff CHARLES F. DRAPER, Study Director SIDNEY G. REED, JR., Consultant

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program NAVAL STUDIES BOARD VINCENT VITTO, Charles S. Draper Laboratory, Inc., Chair JOSEPH B. REAGAN, Saratoga, California, Vice Chair DAVID R. HEEBNER, McLean, Virginia, Past Chair ALBERT J. BACIOCCO, JR., The Baciocco Group, Inc. ARTHUR B. BAGGEROER, Massachusetts Institute of Technology ALAN BERMAN, Applied Research Laboratory, Pennsylvania State University NORMAN E. BETAQUE, Logistics Management Institute JAMES P. BROOKS, Litton/Ingalls Shipbuilding, Inc. NORVAL L. BROOME, Mitre Corporation JOHN D. CHRISTIE, Logistics Management Institute RUTH A. DAVID, Analytic Services, Inc. PAUL K. DAVIS, RAND and RAND Graduate School of Policy Studies SEYMOUR J. DEITCHMAN, Chevy Chase, Maryland, Special Advisor DANIEL E. HASTINGS, Massachusetts Institute of Technology FRANK A. HORRIGAN, Bedford, Massachusetts RICHARD J. IVANETICH, Institute for Defense Analyses MIRIAM E. JOHN, Sandia National Laboratories ANNETTE J. KRYGIEL, Great Falls, Virginia ROBERT B. OAKLEY, National Defense University HARRISON SHULL, Monterey, California JAMES M. SINNETT, The Boeing Company WILLIAM D. SMITH, Fayetteville, Pennsylvania PAUL K. VAN RIPER, Williamsburg, Virginia VERENA S. VOMASTIC, The Aerospace Corporation BRUCE WALD, Center for Naval Analyses MITZI M. WERTHEIM, Center for Naval Analyses Navy Liaison Representatives RADM RAYMOND C. SMITH, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N81 RADM PAUL G. GAFFNEY II, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 (through June 7, 2000) RADM Jay M. Cohen, USN, Office of the Chief of Naval Operations, N91 (as of June 8, 2000) Marine Corps Liaison Representative LTGEN JOHN E. RHODES, USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command (through August 17, 2000) LTGEN BRUCE B. KNUTSON, JR., USMC, Commanding General, Marine Corps Combat Development Command (as of August 18, 2000) RONALD D. TAYLOR, Director CHARLES F. DRAPER, Senior Program Officer MARY G. GORDON, Information Officer SUSAN G. CAMPBELL, Administrative Assistant

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program COMMISSION ON PHYSICAL SCIENCES, MATHEMATICS, AND APPLICATIONS PETER M. BANKS, XR Ventures, LLC, Co-Chair WILLIAM H. PRESS, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Co-Chair WILLIAM F. BALLHAUS, JR., The Aerospace Corporation SHIRLEY CHIANG, University of California at Davis MARSHALL H. COHEN, California Institute of Technology RONALD G. DOUGLAS, Texas A&M University SAMUEL H. FULLER, Analog Devices, Inc. MICHAEL F. GOODCHILD, University of California at Santa Barbara MARTHA P. HAYNES, Cornell University WESLEY T. HUNTRESS, JR., Carnegie Institution CAROL M. JANTZEN, Westinghouse Savannah River Company PAUL G. KAMINSKI, Technovation, Inc. KENNETH H. KELLER, University of Minnesota JOHN R. KREICK, Sanders, a Lockheed Martin Company (retired) MARSHA I. LESTER, University of Pennsylvania W. CARL LINEBERGER, University of Colorado DUSA M. McDUFF, State University of New York at Stony Brook JANET L. NORWOOD, Former Commissioner, U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics M. ELISABETH PATÉ-CORNELL, Stanford University NICHOLAS P. SAMIOS, Brookhaven National Laboratory ROBERT J. SPINRAD, Xerox PARC (retired) JAMES F. HINCHMAN, Acting Executive Director

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program Preface The mission of the Office of Naval Research (ONR) is to maintain a close relationship with the research and development community to support long-range research, foster discovery, nurture future generations of researchers, produce new technologies that meet known naval requirements, and provide innovations in fields relevant to the future Navy and Marine Corps. Accordingly, ONR supports research activities across a broad range of scientific and engineering disciplines. As one means of ensuring that its investments appropriately address naval priorities and requirements and that its programs are of high scientific and technical quality, ONR requires that each of its departments undergo an annual review (with a detailed focus on about one-third of the reviewed department’s programs). The Marine Corps Science and Technology (S&T) program reviewed in this report resides within the Expeditionary Warfare Operations Technology Division (Code 353) of the Naval Expeditionary Warfare S&T Department (Code 35) of ONR. At the request of ONR, the National Research Council (NRC) established the Committee for the Review of ONR’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program to review and evaluate ONR’s Marine Corps S&T program components in the areas of maneuver, firepower, logistics, command and control, and training and education against criteria such as the appropriateness of the investment strategy within the context of Marine Corps priorities and requirements, impact on and relevance to Marine Corps needs, Navy/Marine Corps program integration effectiveness, and scientific and technical quality. The committee was also asked to identify promising basic (6.1), exploratory (6.2), and advanced (6.3) research topics that could be initiated to support the Marine Corps S&T program ( Appendix A gives the full terms of reference). At the request of the Head of ONR’s Naval Expeditionary Warfare S&T Department (Code 35), the committee also reviewed the Extending the Littoral Battlespace (ELB) advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD).

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program The committee met once, May 9-11, 2000, in Washington, D.C., to both gather information and prepare an initial draft report. The 3-day meeting was divided into two parts: the first comprised presentations by and interactions with project managers (and ONR-supported principal investigators) responsible for various program components, and the second was devoted to discussing the issues, developing consensus, and drafting the committee’s findings and recommendations. The committee’s report represents its consensus views on the issues posed in the charge.

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program Acknowledgment of Reviewers This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the National Research Council’s (NRC’s) Report Review Committee. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We wish to thank the following individuals for their review of this report: Anthony J. DeMaria, DeMaria ElectroOptics Systems, J. Dexter Fletcher, Institute for Defense Analyses, James J. Harp, Annandale, Virginia, David W. McCall, Far Hills, New Jersey, George S. Sebestyen, Systems Development, LLC, LtGen Philip D. Shutler, USMC (retired), and H. Gregory Tornatore, Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University. Although the reviewers listed above provided many constructive comments and suggestions, they were not asked to endorse the conclusions and recommendations, nor did they see the final draft of the report before its release. The review of this report was overseen by Lee M. Hunt, Alexandria, Virginia, appointed by the Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Applications, who was responsible for making certain that an independent examination of this report was carried out in accordance with institutional procedures and that all review comments were carefully considered. Responsibility for the final content of this report rests solely with the authoring committee and the institution.

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program Contents     EXECUTIVE SUMMARY   1 1   INTRODUCTION   6     Context,   6     General Observations,   11     Organization of This Report,   13 2   MANEUVER   14     Overview,   14     Programs Reviewed,   15     Recommendations for New Programs,   19     Concluding Remarks,   20 3   FIREPOWER   21     Overview,   21     Programs Reviewed,   22     Recommendations for New Programs,   25     Concluding Remarks,   26 4   LOGISTICS   28     Overview,   28     Programs Reviewed,   29     Recommendations for New Programs,   33     Concluding Remarks,   34

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program 5   TRAINING AND EDUCATION   35     Overview,   35     Programs Reviewed,   36     Recommendations for New Programs,   40     Concluding Remarks,   41 6   COMMAND AND CONTROL   43     Overview,   43     Programs Reviewed,   44     Recommendations for New Programs,   52     Concluding Remarks,   54 7   BASIC RESEARCH (6.1)   55     Overview,   55     Programs Reviewed,   55     Recommendations for New Programs,   62     Concluding Remarks,   63 8   EXTENDING THE LITTORAL BATTLESPACE (ELB) ADVANCED CONCEPT TECHNOLOGY DEMONSTRATION   65     Findings,   66     Recommendations,   67     Concluding Remarks,   69 9   SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS AND ACHIEVING BETTER INTEGRATION WITH THE MARINE CORPS   70     The Code 353 Program,   70     Code 353 and Other Parts of the Office of Naval Research,   72     The Opportunity,   74     APPENDIXES         A Terms of Reference   77     B Previous Training and Education Studies   78     C Committee Biographies   85     D Acronyms   89