4

Logistics

OVERVIEW

The U.S. Marine Corps is moving toward the Operational Maneuver From the Sea (OMFTS) concept, which relies heavily on sea-based logistics with a minimal logistics footprint ashore. This seabased logistics system is a time-critical, transportation-intensive system. Requests for supplies from the warfighters ashore will be quickly assembled into shipments aboard ship and transported to the beach and beyond by airlift (V-22 and helicopters) and/or surface lift (advanced amphibious assault vehicle (AAAV) and the landing craft, air-cushioned (LCAC)). This logistics concept was reviewed by the Naval Studies Board in 1998, and several significant findings were documented in the report Naval Expeditionary Logistics: Enabling Operational Maneuver From the Sea. 1 One significant finding was that the OMFTS concept and key parameters such as the desired level of combat capability and the operating distance ashore were not yet fully defined. As a result of these uncertainties, it was not possible for that study to determine the critical shortfalls in the logistics system and where improvements were most needed. Nonetheless, the committee observes that Code 353 research should focus on improving the Marines’ ability to provide logistics support from sea bases.

For even a fairly light Marine landing force ashore, comprising 6,800 Marines with current equipment, the resupply requirement was 490 tons/day. That study found such a supply rate could be maintained for a ship-to-warfighter distance of 125 miles, but not much farther with currently planned lift capabilities. Knowing about the distribution of supplies required by that landing force, as shown in Table 4.1 , is necessary for understanding some of the findings of the current study committee. Fuel is clearly the major logistics driver, consuming about 46 percent of the lift required, but water is a close second, followed by munitions.

Based on requirements like these, the committee recognizes the high value of programs that can significantly reduce the OMFTS logistics requirements. Specific programs include those for the recon-

1  

Naval Studies Board, National Research Council. 1999. Naval Expeditionary Logistics: Enabling Operational Maneuver From the Sea, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.



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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program 4 Logistics OVERVIEW The U.S. Marine Corps is moving toward the Operational Maneuver From the Sea (OMFTS) concept, which relies heavily on sea-based logistics with a minimal logistics footprint ashore. This seabased logistics system is a time-critical, transportation-intensive system. Requests for supplies from the warfighters ashore will be quickly assembled into shipments aboard ship and transported to the beach and beyond by airlift (V-22 and helicopters) and/or surface lift (advanced amphibious assault vehicle (AAAV) and the landing craft, air-cushioned (LCAC)). This logistics concept was reviewed by the Naval Studies Board in 1998, and several significant findings were documented in the report Naval Expeditionary Logistics: Enabling Operational Maneuver From the Sea. 1 One significant finding was that the OMFTS concept and key parameters such as the desired level of combat capability and the operating distance ashore were not yet fully defined. As a result of these uncertainties, it was not possible for that study to determine the critical shortfalls in the logistics system and where improvements were most needed. Nonetheless, the committee observes that Code 353 research should focus on improving the Marines’ ability to provide logistics support from sea bases. For even a fairly light Marine landing force ashore, comprising 6,800 Marines with current equipment, the resupply requirement was 490 tons/day. That study found such a supply rate could be maintained for a ship-to-warfighter distance of 125 miles, but not much farther with currently planned lift capabilities. Knowing about the distribution of supplies required by that landing force, as shown in Table 4.1 , is necessary for understanding some of the findings of the current study committee. Fuel is clearly the major logistics driver, consuming about 46 percent of the lift required, but water is a close second, followed by munitions. Based on requirements like these, the committee recognizes the high value of programs that can significantly reduce the OMFTS logistics requirements. Specific programs include those for the recon- 1   Naval Studies Board, National Research Council. 1999. Naval Expeditionary Logistics: Enabling Operational Maneuver From the Sea, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program TABLE 4.1 Landing Force Resupply Requirements Item Quantity (tons/day) Percentage of Total Fuel 225 45.9 Water 190 38.8 Munitions 33.5 6.8 Other 26.5 5.4 Food 15 3.1 Total 490 100 naissance, surveillance, and targeting vehicle, which uses a dual-power propulsion system and offers significant fuel savings, reducing consumption for current reconnaissance vehicles by a factor of 1.7 to 2, and the objective crew-served weapon, which potentially offers a 20-fold reduction in the weight of munitions that have to be transported. The committee also recognizes that logistics is typically in a reactive mode, given the task of transporting and maintaining equipment that has often been designed without logistics constraints as a key design consideration, and it encourages the Marine Corps logistics community to take a more proactive role in the future. PROGRAMS REVIEWED Bulk Liquids The Bulk Liquids program includes transport of both fuel and water, but the emphasis of the projects presented was on fuel and concentrated on methods of facilitating transportation and automatic sensing of fuel quantity and fuel quality. One project is developing an expeditionary fuel system (EFS) consisting of ten 400-gallon tanks on a lightweight pallet system that can be easily reconfigured in a variety of ways. Another project is exploring the use of commercial off-the-shelf sensors and communications technologies to automatically monitor and report on the quantity of fuel available in the field. The third major project is exploring a variety of sensing techniques for hand-held instruments to determine the quality of fuel in the field. Findings The committee saw the EFS more as an engineering effort than a science and technology issue. However, the system does reduce the deadweight that has to be transported and the storage space required for the containers aboard the ship, and it adds considerable flexibility to field operations by allowing partially empty fuel containers to be consolidated. The program for implementing fuel-quantity sensors appeared to be an adaptation of commercial technology but was seen as important in developing an automated logistics picture of the battlefield. However, there were concerns about interference and interoperability of the fuel sensor radio-frequency communication links with other communications activities as well as the potential vulnerability of the EFS to information warfare by the adversary. The fuel-quality sensors were seen as an important area of investigation: the use of host nation and captured fuel supplies can significantly reduce logistics transportation demands, but fuel

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program quality is a critical issue in such use. (See, for example, in the Chapter 7 recommendation on the development of fuel cells (page 61 ) a comment on the need to measure sulfur contamination in fuels.) Recommendations The committee suggests that the EFS work be completed and transitioned. The fuel-quantity sensors and communications systems should be examined for their compatibility with other field communications systems as well as for their security. The exploration of hand-held sensor technologies for determining fuel quality is considered an important effort and should be continued. Additionally, the Bulk Liquids program should devote more attention to water, which places the second largest demand on the logistics transportation system and will have to be transported largely from ships to support OMFTS forces. Corrosion Technologies The aim of the Corrosion Technologies program area is to demonstrate new corrosion prevention technologies or corrosion-resistant materials to be used by designers of future Marine Corps equipment. The approach is three-pronged: Conduct exposure tests of materials and coatings in the marine environment, Evaluate accelerated test procedures for U.S. Marine Corps applicability, and Coordinate with other corrosion protection programs in the commercial and military worlds. Findings The committee recognizes that corrosion is a significant cost issue for the Marine Corps and that it is a difficult problem to address in up-front designs that are typically bought jointly with another Service such as the Army, which does not face the same corrosion issues. From this perspective, ONR’s Corrosion Technologies program is seen as taking a proactive view in trying to help reduce future corrosion. However, the committee is concerned that the approach may be repeating much of the work that has been done previously by industry, that it is not taking full advantage of the available scientific knowledge of the processes and physics of corrosion, and that it is spread too thinly to produce a lasting effect. Recommendations The committee recommends that the Corrosion Technologies program concentrate on a specific system, preferably the AAAV. Identifying specific AAAV corrosion problems from discussions with operators and specific technical approaches based on extensive interactions with the corrosion scientific community should become the first priority. The committee recommends that the results of those efforts be used in planning for and testing specific, high-payoff fixes for some of the more expensive and serious AAAV corrosion problems.

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program Modeling and Simulation A significant modeling effort for OMFTS logistics has been under way for some time in the development of the tactical logistics distribution system (TLoaDS). This effort is a discrete time-simulation model that uses logistics algorithms to conduct deterministic or stochastic simulations of OMFTS logistics systems. The proposed work would continue the development and use of this modeling tool and extend modeling to include replenishment of the ships at sea. Findings The Naval Studies Board report Naval Expeditionary Logistics strongly recommended the use of modeling and simulation tools. This committee concurs with that recommendation and emphasizes that the modeling efforts should be used to address important operational and design issues. The use of models like TLoaDS and their expansion to address additional facets of the OMFTS logistics problem should be continued. Recommendations The committee recommends that the set-up time for TLoaDS (currently 2 to 3 months for the front end) be significantly shortened and simplified to make the tool easier to use. These models should be used to assess the effects of vulnerability of the logistics airlift to enemy action in terms of delivery shortfalls and time delays in delivering supplies to the warfighters inland, as well as the impact of bad weather on the at-sea replenishment of the naval force. Vulnerabilities and requirements for aircraft survivability/countermeasures should be communicated to the appropriate development programs. Small Unit Logistics The Small Unit Logistics (SUL) advanced concept technology demonstration (ACTD), started in 1999, is concentrating on supporting logistics command and control, plan execution, and logistics visibility for the small unit at the tactical level. The emphasis of the ACTD is on providing the commander a common tactical/logistics picture at the mission execution phase. The SUL ACTD goals are a proof-of-concept demonstration of improved logistics command and coordination and a smaller footprint for tactical unit logistics. The idea is to use client server architecture to link a number of different legacy databases with tagging devices to allow locating equipment and supplies in real time and to make this common tactical picture available via a communications network based on existing systems such as the single-channel ground and airborne radio system (SINCGARS) radio. Findings The committee is concerned about the limited bandwidth available with current communications systems and the amount of data that has to be transmitted in the SUL concept. The decision to send only changes in database contents in order to keep bandwidth demands at acceptable levels has potentially serious consequences. Errors in receiving the database updates or failure to obtain the updates at all can lead to a slow degradation in database consistency, ultimately producing a confusing, incompatible battlefield picture that can result in incorrect decisions. The SUL plan to integrate a variety of legacy databases is also disturbing, since it raises a number of database incompatibility problems and tends to

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program perpetuate a database interoperability problem. Moreover, the committee notes that many critical decisions about how to best deliver logistics support must be made in very short periods of time during OMFTS operations and believes that decision aids may provide significant support to the operators under these conditions. Recommendations The committee suggests that the SUL ACTD consider the use of advanced error-correcting codes for ensuring the accuracy of database updates and that it develop some methodology to ensure that missed updates are recognized and rerequested by all affected parties. It also recommends that the program, rather than simply integrating existing legacy databases, consider selecting a next-generation database system to be used for one of the legacy databases as a demonstration of the power of new database management systems. Such a step could help solve interoperability problems if the most difficult legacy system were selected for conversion and also used as a transition platform to encourage updating the other legacy database systems by the community. Although the committee recognizes that the current communications structure must be used for some time, proof-of-principle demonstrations of the value of higher-bandwidth communications systems would be a valuable adjunct to the ACTD. The use of the ultra-wideband radios, discussed in the 6.1 research area, should also be considered. The committee also recommends increased attention to the development and testing of decision aids to ensure the effective use of the data by Marine Corps logistics commanders. Summary of Recommendations for Logistics A summary of recommendations for logistics is given in Table 4.2 . TABLE 4.2 Summary of Recommendations for Logistics Project Recommendation Bulk Liquids Complete and transition EFS. Continue sensor exploration. Consider water. Corrosion Focus on AAAV. Modeling and Simulation Simplify TLoaDS setup. Assess airlift vulnerability. SUL Use error-correcting codes. Devise means of synchronizing databases. Develop and test decision aids.

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program RECOMMENDATIONS FOR NEW PROGRAMS Vulnerability of Sea-based Logistics Train The committee is concerned about two potential vulnerabilities of sea-based logistics. In the airlift portion over land occupied by the adversary, the logistics aircraft may be particularly vulnerable to antiaircraft fire, especially from man-portable systems. On the sea-based side, bad weather may degrade or even halt the ability to assemble shipments aboard ship and transport them by air. Although the Marine Corps does not fund aircraft development and aircraft countermeasures, it may have requirements for aircraft survivability/countermeasures that are not being addressed by the appropriate systems development programs. The committee is concerned that unless the Marine Corps takes the initiative in this direction, there is a high likelihood that no one else will address its requirements. Accordingly, the committee recommends that modeling analyses using programs like TLoaDS be used to assess the impact of aircraft vulnerability to enemy action. The resulting Marine Corps requirements for aircraft survivability/countermeasures should then be communicated to the responsible programs. Similarly, TLoaDS or similar models should be developed and used to assess the impact of bad weather on the ability to unload shipboard containers, form logistics delivery packages on board in a limited space, and load those packages onto aircraft for shipment to the warfighters ashore. Integrated Approach to OMFTS Logistics OMFTS requires a demand-based logistics system that integrates many different logistics elements into a robust and flexible system. These different logistics elements include transportation of supplies to the theater of operations from the continental United States and other major supply centers around the world, transfer to logistics support ships in theater, repackaging into loads required by the warfighters, and transport forward and delivery to the warfighters. This is a complex system problem, with multiple opportunities for trading off requirements and capabilities among different system elements, as well as among warfighting elements. Moreover, developing a logistics system that reliably supports the OMFTS concept requires that the scope of OMFTS itself be more clearly delineated in terms of force levels, distance inland, and mission duration. An overall systems perspective needs to be taken toward the OMFTS logistics system. Although the current efforts reviewed by this committee do contribute to an OMFTS logistics system, it is not clear that they are the most cost-effective or the most critical. This comprehensive systems perspective should include interfaces with the commercial logistics systems, the transportation and transfer of equipment and supplies to the OMFTS logistics ships, equipment packaging, flexible repackaging, and transport forward to the forces inland. Such an assessment should also consider the appropriate OMFTS logistics platforms and particularly the requirements for a sea-based logistics platform to support OMFTS. The assessment should also address the expected airlift requirements from the offshore ships to the inland forces, including the number of airlift platforms, their vulnerability, and needed redundancy. 2 Finally, the assessment should identify areas with the potential for high-value trade-offs, where

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2000 Assessment of the Office of Naval Research’s Marine Corps Science and Technology Program Box 4.1 Summary of Recommendations for New Investments in Logistics Vulnerability of sea-based logistics train Shipment development/item location in shipboard environment Innovative approaches to water usage reductions in fuel, water, and munitions requirements can significantly reduce demands on the logistics system. These reductions in demand may come from a variety of factors such as more efficient vehicles, more accurate targeting, and more accurate weapons delivery. This type of overall systems assessment would help the logistics community to play a much more proactive role in the future. Innovative Approaches to Water Usage Water accounts for the second largest demand made on logistics transportation for OMFTS. The Naval Studies Board report Naval Expeditionary Logistics indicated that per-person usage in a Marine Corps landing force was 7 gallons per day. Discussions during the review also indicated that all the water consumed by an OMFTS landing force would have to be transported from the ships. In part, this transport requirement was driven by the need to keep up with fast-moving troops. Even though techniques exist for purifying the water from indigenous sources such as streams and lakes, the production rate may not be high enough to keep pace with the warfighters. In other environments such as the desert, sources of water are very limited, and the warfighters must rely on having it transported. As a consequence, the committee recommends a two-pronged approach. First, a program to quantify options to reduce nonpersonal consumption of water by recycling and reuse or alternative methods should be considered. Even a 10 to 20 percent reduction in the amount of water required would significantly reduce transportation demands. Second, efforts to improve the throughput of water purification techniques and reduce their weight and power requirements should be pursued, leading to new systems that can convert water from indigenous sources into useful supplies for the warfighters in an OMFTS scenario. Summary of Recommendations for New Investments in Logistics A summary of recommendations for new investments in logistics is given in Box 4.1 . CONCLUDING REMARKS Logistics is critical to the success of OMFTS and should be given more attention within the ONR research programs. The Expeditionary Logistics future naval capability was not briefed to the committee, and it may address some of the issues identified above as gaps. However, it is clear that many logistics-critical elements must be addressed for successful sea-based logistics, and closer coordination with the design programs and the other programs in this S&T area is needed to help reduce the logistics demands as part of the up-front design.