TABLE B.2 Technology-based Training Capabilities Expected to Be Available in 2035



Key Enabling Technologies


Embedded training

Training for operation, maintenance, and/or employment of a system (e.g., device, software package) included in, and presented by, the system itself

• Human-computer interaction

• Information access and decision support technology

• Cognitive modeling

• Obviate requirements for external training: potential user should need only to turn the system on to learn how to use it—all operator and deployment training should be embedded, as should most maintenance training

• Ensure separation of training from operations and noninterference of one with the other

Distance learning

Structured learning that takes place without the physical presence of an instructor. Distance learning refers to distance training, distance education, distributed training, etc., and includes the full range of approaches (not just video teletraining) for distributing instruction to physically dispersed students

• Computer and video communications

• Data compression

• Networking

• Interactive courseware (e.g., computer-based instruction, interactive multimedia instruction, techniques of individualization, design to effect specified outcomes)

• High-quality training available anytime, anywhere, to any student

• Integration with personnel, classification, and assignment systems

Interactive courseware

Training delivered using computer capabilities that tailors itself to the needs of individual students

• Computer technology Training that uses interactions with

• Cognitive modeling

• Instruction engineered to achieve specified training outcomes

Training that uses interactions with each student to maximize its efficiency by tailoring sequence, content, style, and difficulty of instruction to the needs of that student

Intelligent training systems

A form of interactive courseware that is generated in real time, is tailored to the needs of the individual student, and permits initiation of a tutorial dialogue and open-ended questioning by the student

• Speech and natural language interaction

• Cognitive modeling

• Knowledge representation

• Computer technology

• An articulate, expert tutor for every student, possessing full knowledge of the student, the subject matter, and tutorial techniques and capable of sustaining mixed initiative, tutorial dialogue in terms the student understands

• “An Aristotle for every Alexander”

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