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PERSONNEL NEEDS AND TRAINING FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH THE 1977 REPORT of the COMMITTEE ON A STUDY OF NATIONAL NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL COMMISSION ON HUMAN RESOURCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL Volume 1 National Academy of Sciences Washington, D. C. 1977

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been authors according to Committee consisting Sciences, the National Academy of of Medicine. reviewed by a group other than the procedures approved by a Report Review of members of the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute The work on which this publication is based was performed pur- suant to Contract No. NOl-OD-5-2109 with the National Institutes of Health of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Available from: Commission on Human Resources National Research Council 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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NAT! O NAL ACADE MY OF SC' E NC ES OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT 210' CONSTITUTION AVENUE WAS - INGTON, D. C- 20q.143 September 30, 1977 The Honorable Joseph Califano Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Washington, D. C. 20201 My dear Mr. Secretary: It is a pleasure to present to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare the'l977 report of the Committee on a Study of National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel. This is the third annual report in the continuing study undertaken by' the National Research Council pursuant to Title I of the 'National Research Act of 1974 (PL 93-3487. The work has been supported under Contract NO1 OD 5 2109 with the National Institutes of Health. The Act states (Section 473 (a)) that the purposes of the study are to: "~1) establish (A) the Nation's overall need for biomedical and behavioral research personnel, (B) the subject areas in which such personnel are needed and the number of such personnel needed in each such area, and (C) the kinds and extent of training which should be provided such personnel; (2) assess (A) current training programs available for the training of bio- medical and behavioral research personnel which are conducted under this Act at or through institutes under the National Institutes of Health and the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, and (B) other current training'programs available for the training of such personnel; (3) identify the kinds of research positions available to and held by individuals completing such programs; (4) determine, to the extent feasible, whether the programs referred to in clause (B) of paragraph (2) would be adequate to meet the needs established under pragraph (1) if the programs referred to in clause (A) of paragraph (2) were terminated; and (5) determine what modifications in the programs referred to in paragraph (2) are required to meet the needs established under paragraph (1~."

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In the sixteen months since the submission of the 1976 report, the Committee has made substantial progress in respond- ing to the goals of the Act. Through the conduct of new surveys, it has significantly expanded the data on which estimates of labor market conditions and planning needs are based. In addition, the Committee has, as it was asked to do, addressed training needs in the areas of health services research and nursing research. In the year ahead, the Committee will seek further improvement in its ability to assist HEW and the Congress in meeting the Nation's training needs. We hope the present report will be helpful and shall be glad to discuss it with you and your staff. Sit, Philip Handler President Enclosure

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EREEACE This report for 1977 is the third in a series Of annual reports prepared by the Committee or a Study of National Needs for Biomedical and Behaviora ~ Research Personnel in a continuing study that was es-ate' ished pursuant to Ache provisions of tile Nationa ~ Research Service Award Act of . . , 1974 (Public Law 93- 348) ~ In this report, the Ccm~r~ttee discusser; the current status of the ~ abor Market and the near-~.erm outicols for research personnel in the four broad areas into which the study has beers organized--basic biomedical sciences, bel~aviora l sciences, clinical sciences and hea ~ th services research. I n accordance with the provisions of the Health Research arid Health services Amen(3ment~; of ~ 9 ~ 6, accordance with the arid Hea Ith S ervices which extended the authority of the Act year for the f ~ rst Aide reports upon. research tra ining neeas and issues in nursir~q research. The Committee has agai ~ made specific recommendations about the numbers of individua Is to be supported by the research training programs of the National Institutes of Health, the Alcohol, Drug Chase, ant] Mental Health Administration, and the Health Resources Administration. Reconmendations ~ Iso speak to the divi sion of support between p:redoctoral and postdoctoral training. The Committee makes firm recommendations for FY iS79 an] sets tentative goals f or PY ^19 80-S 1. An explanaticn of the omission of recommendations for 1978 is required. The Committee last year set tentative goals for EY 1978 with the expectat ion that they woula be Yin and revised in this current report. However, subsequent a~reniments to the Act changed the Committee's reporting date from March 31 to September 30. Since recc~mmenciations made on the last day of the current f isca ~ year would come too late to affect the awar ds to be macie . in EY 1 9 7 8, the Comm it tee wa s to reed to' let its earlier (and tentative) recommendations for ~g78 stated. The timing of the Committee' s 1976 report relative to the Congressional appropriation process and to the agencies" awar ding process created some operationa l clif f iculties. That report was transmitted in h,ay 1976, when only a Roth Rena inert in the f isca 1 yea r. Hence there was insuff icient time for the agencies to respond] to the Co~rmittee's re se a rch . I n the Health Research 1976 the Commi thee this recommendations for EY 1976. liming probe ems should have been somewhat less serious relative to the EY ~977 rec:omrner~dations made in last year' s ret rt, and shorted become even less so Pith those made for EY 1978. - As this year Is recommendations cover EY 197g-8 1, it is unlikely that there wil ~ be ~ Or; cry coordinating the recommendations with the a ppropriation and awarding process. The Committee wi Il continue to review and revise its recom~nendat ions when ne ce sear y. of special interest in the ~ 977 report are the results of a survey of a sample of ~ 4, 30 0 of the country' s younger biomedical and behaviora ~ scientists; a discussion of the v

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situation of minorities and worries in the biomedical arid b.ehav for a ~ s cience s; and rec om~r,en(3a tions ah ich add re ss some of the policies and administ rative aspects of the bat ianal Research Service Award Act proc~ran:. The current report has heer, organ) zed into two vc'1 umes Volume 1, the report proper, contains suatraries of all findings and analyses and the statement and discussion of each of the Committee ' s recommendations. Vole 2, the appendixes, is Comfy ised of ~ ~ ~ tatu] a r da ta which wi ll te of interest primarily to those who desire to study in detail the resu, ts of the Commi ttee ~ s survey, and (2) data supplier] to the Committee by the agencies ccr,cernir~q their programs for 1975 arid ~ 976. The reader who desires only to knew the direction. underI:y~ng rationale, and specifics of the Committee ' s recon,aet~da tions need not read i30lu~re 2. volume ~ contains 10 chapters. Chapter 1 begins with the oh Electives the Committee brad ire developing the ~ 977 report. It then reviews the new area of nursing research, the public meeting which the Committee hel ~ in verger 1976, and two special surveys the Committee conducted this year. Finally, a summary is given of the Committee's numerical recommendations for FY 1979, and its tentative - recommen OCR for page R1
With the recent passage of Public Car; 95-8 3--the Biomedical Research Extension Act of 1977--the authority of the legislation leas been exter~dec] through September 3D, ~978. The Committee is pleased to be of service and will cont inue its ana lysi s of these important f ederal training programs as long as such study serves a useful purpose. Robert 3. G1 aser, M-~. Cha Iowan Henry w. Fiec~cen, Ph. D. Ntice Chairman V11

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS This report has benefited from the efforts and cooperation of many people and organizations. The committee Is particularly grateful to the chairmen and members of its five panels for the time they devoted to their deliberations and for their intensive efforts in compiling infcrmation, interpreting findings, providing advice, and formulating recommendations for the Committee's consideration. Several federal agencies interested in this study suppl fed hel pful advice and assistance . Financial support was provided by the National Institutes of Health. Donald S. Fredrickson, Director of the National Institutes of Health, James D. Istister, former administrator of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration, and Kenneth Endico~t, former Administrator of the Health Resources Administration, met with the Committee early in the last fiscal year and presented their views on the tray Ding programs. William H. Batchelor served as pro ject of ficer for The National Institutes of Health and maintained excel ~ ent liaison with the Committee. Also at the National Institutes of Health, Joseph A. Brackett, Charles W. Casey, Carl D. Douglass, Helen H. Gee, Nicholas C. Moriarty Jr., Charles A. Mill er, Vincent E. Price, Solomon Schneyer, Charles N. Shea, and Herbert B. Woolley made available background information and data and provided other assi stance. David F. Refauve' and Michele W. Harvey of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration and Susan R. Gortner and Marie J. Bourgeoi se in the Divis ion of Nursing of the Health Resources Administration, provided liai son with their organizations and were helpful in many ways. Gerald Rosenthal and Jean Carmody of the National Center for Health Services Re search, Health Resources Administrati on, provided information regarding their training programs in the area of health services research. Richard P . Ei singer of the Of f ice of Management and Budget assi sted in the development of the surrey questionnaires. At the National Science Foundation Penny Foster and Susan Brood es her ped to coordinate the surveys with those of the Foundation, and Char ~ es H. Dickens provided administrative assistance. A special paper prepared by Jerry Miner, a member of the Data and Studies Panel, was incorporated in Chapter 2. Joan Snyder, serving as a consultant, contributed importantly to the study of minorities and women reported in Chapter ~ . within the Commission on Human Resources, Robert. A. Alberty, Chairman of the Commission, and William c. Kelly, its Executive Director, offered counsel and assistance in all phases of the study. The Committee's staff, under the direction of Herbert B. Pah1, supported the Committee and panels by conducting the surveys and other data collection activities, performing the V111

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analyses, and preparing reports of the findings. Allen M. Singer supervised the collection of data f rom the agencie s and performed the analyses leading to the pro j ections of academic demand in the basic biomedical, behavioral, and clinical sciences area. ~ ~~ Porter E. Coggeshal ~ nao primary responsibility f or conducting the Survey of Bic: medical and Behave oral scientists, analyzing the results and reporting the f indings . Pamela Ebert-Flattau coordinated the data collection and analyses in the areas of behavioral sciences, heal th servi ces research, and nursing re search . John C . Norvell and Samuel S. Reman served as executive secretaries to the Basic Biomedical and Clinical Sciences Panels resnectivelv and sup=rvi sed the staf f support of those support _ , _ ., panels' activities. Robert G. Snyder had primary responsibility for conducting the Survey of Department Chairmen. Lindsey R. Harmon served as a consultant on the survey design and analyses. The Committee enjoyed excellent adding strative, technical, and clerical support. Kay C. Harris handled the administrat ion, - - - J . Richard Albert, Prudence W. Brown, Cora zon M. Franci sco, David Y. Pee, and Rebecca C. Stuart pert armed the technical tasks, and Marie A. Clark, Llyn M. Elli son, Danita L. Gareri, Regina C. Jacobs, and Sharon A. Sanford supplied expert secretarial services. To all of the se persons and organizations, expresses its warmest thanks. ix the Committee

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COMMITTEE ON A STUDY OF NATIONAL NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL Chairman: *Robert J. GLASER, M.D. President The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation Vice Chairman: John J. BURNS, Ph.D. Vice President of Research Hoffman-La Roche, Inc. Nutley, New Jersey Robert H. BURRIS, Ph.D. Department of Biochemistry University of Wisconsin John J. CONGER, Ph.D. Professor of Clinical Psychology University of Colorado Medical Center Robert GALAMBOS, M.D., Ph.D. Department of Neurosciences University of California at San Diego Helen Homans GILBERT Dover, Massachusetts W. Lee HANSEN, Ph.D. Professor of Economics University of Wisconsin Dorothy M. HORSTMANN, M.D. Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Yale University *Peter Barton MUTT, LL.M. Covington & Burling Washington, D.C. *Members of the Executive Committee x *Henry W. RIECKEN, Ph.D. Professor of Behavioral Sciences University of Pennsylvania John E. JACOBS, Ph.D. Walter P. Murphy Professor of Electrical Engineering and Engineering Sciences Director, Biomedical Engineering Center Northwestern University David MECHANIC, Ph.D. Director, Center for Medical Sociology and Health Services Research University of Wisconsin *Robert S. MORISON, M.D. Professor Emeritus Richard J. Schwartz Professor of Science and Society Program on Science, Technology, and Society Cornell University Lincoin E. MOSES, Ph.D. Professor of Statistics Stanford University Esmond E. SNELL, Ph.D. Department of Microbiology University of Texas Mitchell W. SPELLMAN, M.D., Ph.D. Executive Dean Charles R. Drew Postgraduate Medical School Los Angeles, California *James B. WYNGAARDEN, M.D. Chairman, Department of Medicine Duke University Medical Center