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APPENDIX C SURVEY RESPONSE TO THE 1976 SURVEY OF BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENTISTS

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APPENDIX C1 1976 SURVEY OF BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SC:IENTTSTS The purpose of this survey wa s to obtain detai led information on the training and subsequent uti ligation of recent doctorate recipients in biomedical and behavioral discip] ines. survey f indings are described in Appendixes B and E, as we Il as in Chapter 3. The questionnaire used in the surrey has been included at ~ he end of this section. It was sent to 14, 300 persons who had earned research doctorates ~ Ph. a. or equz~ral ent3 between EY ~ 9 7 t a nd FY ~ 9 75 in biomedical, hehavioral, and other health-rela~ed fields. These persons represented a rotas population of 3B,400 graduates who earned similar degrees and had indicated their intention to remain in the U. S. labor force after graduation.2 In selecting the survey sample ~ stratified design with disproorotionate sampling was used in crder to maximize ~Q1iabi lity in reporting differences by year arid specialty area of degree, sex, and source of predoctoral support (see Appendixes C2 and C3). Ar. overall response rate of almost 71 percent was ohtair~ed. Approximately 1,600 of the 10, 113 survey responses were f ram persons who indicated Eli her that their doctorate was not In a biomedical or behavioral discipline (as def ined in the survey taxonomy) or that they were currents y employed in ~ foreign country. Their responses were not included In She data reported in Appendixes B and E. Of the 4 ,1 0 0 persons who d~d not respond to the survey, at l eas t 4 0 percent could not be reached through avai l abl e addresses. 3 ~ detailed comparison of survey respondents and nonrespond~n~ s was made on the basis of information that had be en co ~ ~ ect =d a ~ the t ime ~ hey had re ce ived the i r doctorates. Findings from this comparison are Warren in Appendixes C2-C5. The following groups of individual s were fourth to have been less like] y to respond to the survey: t 1' Graduates in related f ields not generally consi dered to be b~omedica ~ or behave cra sci ences (Append) x C 2) ; (2) Males, earl ier graduates, and those who had not received NIH predoctoral support (Appendix C 31; {3) Persons categorized as foreign according to citizenship, birthol ace, anchor baccalaurea te training ~ Appendix C4 ~ ; (4) (;raduates who at the ~ ime they received their doctorate did not have a def incite cocci treat f or prospective employment (Append ~ x C 5 ~ ; 43

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(5) Graduates planning; to be Cloyed in the business sector {Appendix Cal. Only the response rate for the foreign group was considered significantly low enough to have possibly pre judiced findings from the survey. However, it is suspected that many of the foreign nonrespondents have nc,~ remained in this country and should not hay" beer included in the original population. In 1 ooking for other sources of response bias, the Committee considered the possibility that either unemployed or unde~uti li zed graduates might have been significantly less ~ ikely to complete the questionnaire. A] though the evidence available. in Appendix C5 suggests that thi s was not an important source of bias, a follow-up of approximate ly 100 nonresponse cases is being made. Results from this foil ow-up are note yet available. In order to examine the current employment market for nurses with recently earned dcotorates, the same questionnaire was sent to 495 nurses who represented a total of 558 individuals who had earned doctorates between 1971 and ~ 975. Findings for this survey group are reported in Appendix I. Since an overall response of more than 78 ~ rcer ~ was obtai ned f rom onI y two survey mat ~ ings, t he Comm: ttee felt that an investigation of potential nonresponse bias was riot needed. 44

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FOOTNOTES ~ . Graduate s f row chemi stry (organic and othe r specialties3, econometrics, operations research, and statistics were incl uded in the survey sample since in the past many individuals from these fielcis have move] into areas of biomedical and beha~riora ~ research. 2. Appro xi mater y ~ O p ercent of the recent Ph. O. reci pi ent s in biomedical and behavioral fields have indicated that they planned to find ernploymen+ in a foreign country. 3. It i s suspected that the actual percentage not contacted may exceed 6 ~ percent of the total nonresponse. 4. It should be noted that the response rate for those still seeking a job at the time they received their doctorates was no greater than the rate for those who were negotiating contracts at this time. Neither of these response rates was substantia lly below the rate for those who had definite employment comm~tmer~ts at graduation. 45

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he ~ c] At uJ O ~ I Jo ~ ~ ~ O `0 0 0 ~ O ~ :P ~ _ Jo 0` 0 0` to ~ O ~0 ~1 ~ At ~ ~ ~ ~ O _ hi. C' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ ~ ~ ~ · ~ ~ c ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ · · Z AS ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ oh ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ 0` ~0 0 U] lo ~ a___ ______ __ _ ___ _ ____ _4_ Z ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ rid ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 0 ~ · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ e ~ · ~ c · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ · ~ e At At ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ to ~ ~ lit ~ ~ ~ up ~ ~ ~ In ~ co 3` ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 0 a, :~ 0 0 ~ ~ __ _ ______ ~4__~ _ ___m.~ _~__~ __ UJ J ~ ~ ~ ~J ~ ~ O ~ u~ ~ ~ a) ~ r—~ ~ _ r~ C~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Oi ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ,~ · ~ c ~ · e e · c ~ ~ · ~ e ~ e ~ · ~ ~ · · · ~ · ~ · · · ~ · _ ho ~ ~ u' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a' ~ 0 co _ 0 ~ 0 a, ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ O ~ ~ ~ ~—~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ —~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~0 _ ~ ~ ~ ~ t~ ~ N ~ U) ~ · e c e c e c ~ c c ~ · a e c ~ c e c · c e c ~ c W ~m _ _ C, _ O ~0 _ a) t~J ~0 O ~ ~ ~ ~ t~ ~ ~ O~ ~1 ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~~ O~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c · ~ e e ~ · ~ e · c c · c c ~ · e ~ e a · c c c O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ `0 ~ _ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ _ _ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ __~ lL UJ z ~ 0 ~ ~o ~ ~ 0 ~o ~ ~ a: ~ ~ _ ~ ~o ~ - 4 ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ ~o ~ ~ ~ 0` ~ ~ ~ _ u.' O _' · · · · · ~ · # · e # e ~ # · e · c e c · e e ~ c ~ · · ~ c O ~ I UJ _ — 0 0 0 _ ~ O ~ J ~ _ _ _ _ _1 ~ I_ ~ U~ ~ ~ r— N ~4 ;~ ~ `0 Ch ¢} 7 _ ~ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ~ _ _ _ _ _. _ _ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ a:' ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ cr~ ~—~ 0 u, ~ ~ ~ u' _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~4 ~ O · ~ · · ~ · ~ ~ c ~ ~ · ~ · · · · ~ ~ ~ ~ · · e · ~ c · c c ~ 0 ~ :n ~ ~o ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ a~ — ~ ~ _ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ m~ ~ ·0 ~ ~ a u~ ~O ~ U~ ~ ~ %0 ~0 4 ~ ~ 4 = ~0 ~ 4 ~ ~o Ln ~ ~ ~o ~ ~ = ~ ~ = U `0 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ O ~ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ ~ u' ~ ~ _ ~ ~o ~ r~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c · ~ · ~ ~ ~ · ~ · ~ · ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ · ~ ~ c _ ~ 0 ~ ~ u' ~ ~ ~ ~ 0 ~ ~ ~ _ ~ c~ —~ ~ ~ ~ _ P~ ~ cO ~ ~ O a, ~ `0`8~U~ ~o~o r ~o ~o ~ ho~0~ ~o~o~ ~~0 ~u ~ ~ ~ 0 0 r~ cr~ ~ ~ cr~ ~ ~o a~ ~ ~ tr) J ~ O t~ _ ~ ~ ~ a~ ~ C~ ~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ 0` z r~ ——a~ u~ ~ ~ ~ ~m ~0~ =m U, ~ _ _ ~ _' _ Z O ~S ~ O V O Z ~ ~ O o J Z O UJ ~ J m LL ~ V LU ~ Z ~: Q c~ J v) ~ u~ LU V ~ c · u.l Z J Z O _ Z ~S O ~ ~ O u~ _ ~ a' ~ ~ _ _ _ _ ~ ~ ~ o~ r" ~ c. ~ a~ ~~^ ~— ~ ~o ~~ ~~O O~=O ~ ~ _ ~ _ _ u~ ~mr- - ~ a' _ ~o c~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ - ~ - ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ ~ a, _ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ r~ r~ cr ~ 0 ~ r. ~ ~ ~ r~ a' ~ _ _ ~ c~ ~ _ - _ ~ 0 ~ c~ u~ ~ O ~ ~ ~ _ a' ~ r" r. ~0 _ 0 u~ ~0 u~ ~ _ ~ —u~ ~r { - , _ N _ _ 0 ~ ~, - ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~S W Z ~ Z Z ~ 3 Z Z :t 3 Z O— _ ~ O Z ~ ~ ~ Z aS Z O L~ ~ ~ ~ z ~ C) UJ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z ~ J ~ Z Z w J C, ~ W J ~ Z Z Ul J ~ ~ UJ llJ ~ 1~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <5 J ~) t _ ~ ~ Z uJ ~ ~ J z _ LLJ ~ Z _ ~ ~) Z u~ ~ ~: J z ~ 1~ ~ z tL Z ~S ~ ~ u~ Z CL ~ V—Z :D LL Z ~ — ~ LLJ Z C~ ~ ~ ~ Z O ~ Z c~ ~ ~ ~ u~ ~ O u~ Z ct u, Um w ~ ~ ~ Z CL ~—U) ~ ~ CL ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Z CL ~—UJ Ul ~ Z C ~ C ~ ~ Z Z ~ ~: ~ Z Ill 1~ 2 O c~ ~ ~ ~ Z Z ~ a: ~ Z —O— ~) aS V z) C lL aS UJ O *5 1~ —~ O— ~ ~ V ~ O UJ ~S UJ O ~ ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ C ¢ ~) Z J 1~ ~ J J ~ ~ V ~ ~ ~ CD t:) ~ J ~ ~ J J J ~ ~ ~ ~ J ~ ~ ~: 1~ ~ ~ J ~: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ C~ I ~ t~ 11 0 ~ ~ =} -5 -2 Z Z Z O ~ O ~ U-1 O ~ L~ ~ ~ ~ Z Z Z 0 1~ 0 ct ~) Z C ~ ~ t~ ~ ~—J ~ ~ ~ ~ ~) Z =~ ~ ~ ~ _ ~ _ J ~ uJ 1~ ~ ~ ~S ~ O ~ Z Z O Z ~ ~ ~ ~ O cL Z Z O Z J UJ t~ ~ ~ Z Z Z ~ ~ —~ U~ :~ J 1~1 t~ ~ ~ z z z ~: L~l —~ lL W .5 ~ ~) Z ~) Q O O llJ 3: C ~ ~ ~ ~ (~ ~ Z ~ C C: O w 3: O ~ ~ Z ~ O ~ ~ ~ ~ Z ~ ~ ~ ——Z 3 C: —~ ~ ~ Z — Z ~ ~ c~ O t~ ~ ~ ~ Ct O ~ V ~ O O Z ~—~ O C: ~ ~ 1~ ~ O ~ ~) C) ~ O —C ~ UJ Z ~ ~ ~ —UJ ~ ~S ~ J J ~ — O ~ ~ Z ~ _ ~ —~u J <2 ~ J J _ UJ ~ ~ [L ~ ~ :~: ~ ~ ~n ~ ~ z: ~ ~ _ u ~ ~L~ ~1J ~LJ ~ Z O ~ O O ~ ~ iLI 3 _ ~ ~S ~ ~ ~ ~ Z O G O 0 ~ ~ t11 ;X _ ~ 0 Q Z~)O ~ ~ ~ ~ ~O L~ ~ ~[L u~ ~ Z~O ~ ~ {~ O u~ c~t.Lu] _ LU ~D 50