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Aaarenat~ Fields--In this report, the fields of biomedical and behavioral research have been Visaed for anal ytical purposes into four broad categories or aggregate fields: basic a: ^_^a: __ t __- ~ ~. ~ ~ . _ , _ _ · ~ Vicky Sciences, ~, nenav~orat sciences, 3) conical sciences, and 4) health and ADAMHA trainees and fellows are agencies according to the discipline in which is received. The following listings relate these training disciplines to the four categories employed in this report. Anatomy Biochemi s try Biophys ic s Cel ~ Bi ol ogy Engineering, Genetics Microbiol ogy Patho7 ogy Pharmacol ogy/Toxicology Physi ology Biology, other Other Fi elds 1) services research. cl assified by the The NIR Basic Biomedical Sciences Training Heal th Related Botany Chemi stry Earth Science s Ecology Engine Bring Entomo logy Environmental Hydrobiology their training I: isciplines Included and Agriculture Sciences 221 a Mathemati cs Nutrition Pharmacy Physics Radiation, Nonclinical zoology
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Behavioral S ciences . . . Train~g Disciplin~s Anthropol ogy Education, Counseling and Guidance Mental Be al th Psychology Abnormal Clinical Comparative and Ani~nal Developmental General an ~ Experimental Socia, Psychology Socio logy C1in~cal Sciences Training Di sciplines Denti stry Medicine and Surgery Allergy Anesthes iology Geriatrics Inten~ al Medicine Ca rdiova scular Di seases C' in ica1 Nutrition Conn ective Tissue Di sea se s Dermato1 ogy/Syphi'ology Diabetes En docr inology Ga stro enterology Hematol ogy Infectious Diseases Neurology Neurop sychiatry Obstetri cs/Gyn ecology Opht-ha Imo 1ogy/Optometry Otorhi nolaryngology Pediatrics Preven tive Me dicin e Psychiatry Radiology Surgery Veterinary Medicin e Clinica~ Sciences, Other 1 222 Personality Ph~ysiological Other Psychological Areas Liver Di seas es Metabolic Diseases NllCl ear Medicine Oncology Pulmonary Di seases Penal Diseases Tropi cal Medic~n" Internal Medicine. Other
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Health Services Research ... . . . . Training Disciplines Biostati sties Epidemiol ogy Health Administration Hospital and Medical Care Public Health Accident Prevention Air Pollution Disease Prevention E:nviranm Stat Engineering Other Health Related Prof es signs Food Protection Maternal and Child Ileal th Occupational Health Water Pollution Control Committee--Co~Tunittee on a Study of National Needs for Biomedical ma Behavioral Research Personnel. Doctorates: Acad~mic~-receivea Ph. O. or equivalent degree. Professional--received M. D., O. D.S., D.11.~., or other health professions doctorate. Econometr ice--the trench of economics dealing with the estimation and testing of economic models. Enrichment--displacement within the labor force of Tess highly trained personnel (with M.A./~. S. or ~ ower level degrees) by individuals with doctorate degrees. Field Switch~nq--the movement of individuals between and within fields of training and fields of employment. Medical S cier~tist Training Proura:Ta--troad, institutionally . . . based programs, sponsored by NTH, designed to assist universities and their medical schools in providing selected trainees with the essential scientific and medical background needed for a career as a medical scientist, generally leading to a combined M. D. lPh. D. degree. National Institutes of Heal th (NTH,; Alcohol, Druq Abuse. and Menta ~ Health Administration (ADAMEA): Health Resources ~- Administration (~RA)--federal agencies of the Public Bealth . . Service, Department of Health, Education, and welfare that provide the primary sources calf support for biomedical and behavioral research and research training. The largest 223
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agencies, NIB and ADAMEA, are organized into institutes that pursue va rious health problems. National Research Service Award Act (NRSA Act, PL 93-34 8, ~ 974) --the Act under which this study is Overtaken . It charges the Committee with investigating the nation' s training needs in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. For sections of this Act pertinent to this study, see Appendix V. Panel--refers to any of four specificall y cited disciplinary panels as sociated with this study--Bas~c Biomedical Sciences, Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Sciences, or Health Services Besearch--or to the Data and Studies Panel ~ which provides advice and analytical support to the disciplinary panels and to the Committee. President's Biomedical Research Panel--enacted as part of PL 9 3- 352 ~ ~ 97 4} , this panel is charged with advising Congress and the President by April ~ 976 on policy issues rel ating to the sub ject, content, organization, and operation of biomedical and behavioral research sponsored by NTH and NIMH. Training revs ~ s: _ Pre do ~oral-- study in a graduate program by pre-Ph ~ r) e students and by pre-M.D. 's who are engaged in full-time research training for a minimum of ~ months in a calendar year. Beyond what is normally considered graduate education, predoctoral training, as used in this report. also includes clinical science training in the Medical Science Training Program often ~ eading to a combined M. D. Ash. D. degree. Postdoctoral--specialized research training taking place after receipt of a Ph. D. or health profession degree. Post-Ph.D.--specialized research training taking place . . after receipt of a Ph. D. degree. Postprofessional--research training taking place after receipt of a n~edical, dental, veterinary, or other health profession degree. Training Mechanisms (see ~so Chapter 21: . Fellowship--awards made directly to the individual, largely in the form of a stipend, frond a variety of sources, such as the federal government' voluntary 224
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health organizations, foundations, and universities; may include an institutional subvention. Training grant--awarded to nonprofit privet" or nonfederal public institutions through peer Levi ew competition, generally~for S-year renewable periods; in addition to student support, includes institutional program support for maintenance of the training environment. Research assistantship--graduate student support obtained through a research grant or contract to a faculty member; research associateships are similar awe rd s at t he postd acto ra l level . Teaching provi deaf for designed for a ssi stantshi'- grade student support teaching services; not specifics ly research training. Self/private surport--derives from personal resources, including work, loans, and spouse anchor family. o l 225
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Representative terms from entire chapter: