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Association of American Medical Colleges. Biomedical Research Manpower. Report polished from conference held at Battelle Seattle Research Center, October ~ -3. ~ 973. Washington, D.C.: Council of Academic Societies, May ~ 974. ~ Med ical Education. The Institutions Characteristics and Programs. Washington, ~ C. o f Amer ic an Medical Colleges, ~ 9 73 . . Association . 'tA Policy for Biomedical Research. 'I A report of the AAMC Council of Academic Societies . Journal of Medica Education (August ~ 97 1}, pp. 69 ~ -74 3 . American Medical Association, Center for Health Services Research and Development. D~stritution of Physicians in the . . _ U. S., Chicago, Ill. (annual) . Cartter , All an M., ed. Assuring Academic Progres s Without . Growth, New Directions Series, San Francisco, Jossey-Bass, 1975. . " An overview of the Academic Labor Market. " Presented at the Conference on Graduate Education: Manpower and Costs, University of Illinois, July 10-12, 1 974. . "-Scientific Manpower for 1970-1985.'' Science, vol. v 72 {April 9, 1971), pp. 132-140. Freeman, Richard B. The i Market for Colleqe-Trained . . . Dower: A by in the Economics of Career Choice . . .. . Cambri~qe, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 197 1. and David W. Breneman. ~ the Ph. D. Labor Market: Pitfalls for Policy, Washington, 13. C.: National ~ _ ~ Board on Graduate Education, ~ g74. Fudenberg, H. Hugh, and Jay P. Sanford. "Biomedical Research vs. Health Care Delivery: The President's National Health Strategy. " Federation Proccedinqs, vol. 3 0, no. 4 (July-August ~ 97 If, pp. ~ 373 - ~ 37 5. Journal of the American Medical Association. Education ~ _ _ Number, annually in November, ~ 9 6 0-7 4 . 73

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McGinnis, Robert. Federal Funding and Graduate Education in Bioscience. A report to the National Institute of General- Medical Sciences. UnFublished. Moore, Francis D. "Scientists and Surgeons. '' Science, trot. 176 {June 9, 1972, ~ pp. 1100-~102. Moses, Lincoin E. "The Response of Graduate Enro liment to Placement Opportunities. '' Science, vol. 177 (August ~1, 1 97 2) , pp. 4 9 4-49 7. National Academy calf Sciences . car mittee on Science and Public Policy. The Life Sciences. Washington, D. C.: National Academy of Sciences, ~ 97 0. National Board on Graduate Education, Federal Policy Toward Graduate Education, Washington, D.C National Academy of sciences, January 1 974. ~ . National Res earch Counci I. Doctorate Production- in United ~ ~ _ States ~ 921-1962: - With Baccalaureate of Doctorates ~ n Sciences. Arts and Professions. Compiled by i. R. Harmon and H. Spitz, Of f i ce o f Sc ientif ic Personnel. Washington. C. C.: National Academy of Science c 963. . Doctorate Recipients from United States Universities, 1958-1g66: I, Arts. Prepared in the Research Division of the Office of Scienti f ic P ersonnel under the s ponsorship of the National Science Foundation. Washington, O. C .: National Academy of Sciences, ~ 367. . Doctorate Recipients from United States ~ . . ~ . . Universities. Sly Reports, 1967-1973. Prepared by the Co~runission on Human Resources. Washington, D. C.: National Academy o f S c ienc as, ~ 9 6 8-7 4 . . Doctara 1 Scientists and Engineers in the United States, ~ 973 Profile. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences, ~ g73 . ~ The Invi sible OnittersiLv: Postdoctoral Education in the United States. Washington' O.C.: National Academy o f Sciences, ~ g 6 9 . ~ Ability of Ph. D. 's: Before and After the Doctorate. Washington, I: . C.: National Academy of Science s , 1971. I, . Commission on Human Resources. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research. The ~ 975 Report of the Committee on a Stub of National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel. Washi ngton, D. C.: National Academy of Sciences, ~ 97 5 74

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. Postdoctoral Training ~ n the Biomedical Sciences. Washington, D . C.: National Academy of Sciences, December 1 974. . Commission on Human Resources. Research Training and Career Patterns of Bioscientists: The Traininq Prcq~ams of the National Institutes of Health. Report of the Committee on a Sly of the Impact of the Nationa ~ _ __ ~ Institutes of Health Research Training Program on the Career Patterns of Bioscientists. Washington, D. C.: National Academy of Sciences, July ~ 975. . Commission on Human Resources. Report of the committee on a Feasibility Study of Nationa ~ Need s f or Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel. Washington, O.C.: National Academy of Sciences' ~ 975. National Sci ence Board. Science Indicators ~ 97 2. Washington, D . C.: U. S ~ GC: :vernmen~e, ~ 97 3. National Science Foundation. American Science Manpower. A Report of the National Register of Sc' entific and Techn' cad Personnel. Washington. D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1955-70 (tienn:~al). . Data Book. Washington, D.C. . Foundation, ~ 97 2 . .: Nationa ~ Science . Expenditures for Scientif ic and Activities at Universities and ~ F.Y Ago. Washington, D . C.: U. S. Government Pr inting Of f ic e, ~ 9 7 5 . . Fe feral Funds for Research, De~relopment, and Other Scientific Activities. Washington-, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Off ice (annual) . . Graduate Science Education: Student Support and I, Fall 1972. H~ 73-3 15. Washington, D. C.: . O. S. Government Printing Of fice, ~ 973 . Graduate Science Education: Student Support and Fall 1973. NSF 74-318. Washington, ii;. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 1974. Graduate science Education: Student Support and Fal ~ 1974, Detailed Statistical Tables. NSF . . . 75-322. Washington, O. C.: National Science Foundaticn, 1975. . Pro Sections of Science and Engineering Doctorate . . ~ Supper and Utilization 1980 and 1985. NSF 75-301. Washington. D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1975. . Seminar on Scientific and Technical Manpower I. Washington, O. C.: ~ . S . Government Printing Office, ~ 975. 75

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President's Science Advisory Committee. Panel on Biomedical and Medical Science. Scientific and Educational Basis for ~ . __ Health. Washington, D.C.: Executive Of fice of the Pres ident , O f f ice of Sc fence and l echno logy ~ 19 7 2 ~ ~ ~ Health Care through Research and Development. A report of the Panel on Health Services Research and Development of the President' s Science Advisory Committee, of fice of Science and Technology, Executive office of the President. Washington, D.C.: O. S. Government Printing Office, March 1972. . Dra f t report of the Pan el on Training f or Re search in the Biomedical Sciences. October 3, 1972. Ranney, Helen M., Louis vinyl n, and Harry A. Sultz ~ " Surrey of Staff Pos itions in Academic Hematology In 1971 . " Blood, vol. 40, no. 4 (October 1972), pp. 574-584. Rice, Dorothy P. "The Direct and Indirect Cost - of Illness.'' Reprinted from the Sutcom~ttee on Economic Progress, taint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, Federal Promos for the ~ of Human Resources. A Compendium of Papers. Vcl. 2, part IV, Health Care and I~nprove~nent. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, ~ 968. Siperstein, Marvin D. "The NIB and U. S. Medical SChco] s: The Next 25 Years . " Clinical Research, vol. ~ 9, no. 2 (April 1971), pp. 251-256. Society of Toxicology. "Ad Boc Committee Report on Manpower Training. " December 1, 1973. U. S. Congress . Joint Committee on Atomic Energy. " Development of Sc ienti f ic Engineering and Other Professional Manpower. n 85th Congress, Ist sess. Washington, D.C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1967. U.S. l:epa~nent of Health, Education, and Welfare. Evaluation of Cardiology Training and Manpower Requirements. Forrest - H. Adams and Robert C. Mendenhall, eds. DREW Publication No. (WITH) 7 4-623 ~ Washington, D. C., 197 4. . Office of Education. ~ of Educational Stati stic s to 19 ~ 3- ~ 4 . Washington , D . C .: U. S. Government Printing Office, 1974. . Survey of Professional Manpower ~ n _ ~ Diseases. Prepared by the Manpower Survey committee of the American Thoraci c Society and the American Collage of Chest Physicians. November 1972. . National Institute of Dental Research. "Research Manpower Needs. 1' August 30. 1974. 76

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. National Institute of General Medical Sciences. S~a~ Report: Training programs of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, 1971-1980. Office of the ~ . Director. September 21, 1971. ~ NId Gibe for Grants and Contracts. National . ~ . ~ . . . . Research Service Awards for Individual Postdoctoral Fel lows, vol. 3, no. lS, October 15, 1974. . National Institutes of Health. Institutional . Grants for National Research Service Awards for Research Train in q, pro ~ . 3, no . 2 0, December ~ 3, ~ 9 7 4, and vo ~ . 4, no . 10, October 24, 1975. . Nat icna ~ Ins titutes of Health. Resource s f or Medical Research. Report no. 9. Resource Analysis Branch, Office of Program Planning. U.S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare--~?ublic Health Service Pub lication no. ~ 476. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office, May ~ 966. . National Institutes of Health. The Training Programs of the Institutes of the Fatima ~ Institutes of _ ~ ~ ~ Heal th, Fiscal Year 1974, vow . 1, October 1972. . . . National Heart and Lung Institute Divi sion of Heart and Vascular Diseases. "Current Assessment and FY '76 Pro Sections. '' September 25, 1974. . Office of Education. Students Enro] led for Advanced Degrees, Washington, D. C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960-73 (annual). U. S. Department of Labor. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Ph.D. Manpower ~ Demand and Supply ~972-~5. - Bulletin ~ 86 0 . ~ashington, D. C.: U. S . Government Printing Office. ~ 975. U.S. Louse of Representatives. "National Research Fellowship and Traineeship Act of ~ g 7 3 . " Hearings before the Subcommittee an Pub] ic Health and Environment of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce. March 20, 2 2, 23, 1973. U. S. Senate. 'iQuality of Health Care--Buman Experimentation ~ 9 7 3 . '' ~ ear i ng s ~ ef o re the Sutcommi tt ee on H ea It h o f the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. 93d Congress, Ash sess. April 30, June 28-2g, July ~ 0, 1973. Wcl f le. Dael, and Charle s V. Kidd . "The Future Market f or Ph.O. ts.'t Science, vol. 1973 (August 27, 1971), pp. 784- 793. 77

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