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CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION ALOUD RECOMMENDATIONS Historical Overview Review of Current Studies PAGE 1 1 4 The Federal Role and Training Quality 6 Recommendations 8 Recommendation l: Basic Biomedical Sciences 9 Recommendation 2: Behavioral Sciences 9 Recommendation 3: Clinical Sciences 11 Recommendation 4: Health Services Research 12 Numerica ~ Recommendations 13 Recommendation 5: Announcement Areas 13 The Task of Identifying Priority Training Areas 1 7 Basic Biomedical Sciences Behavioral Sciences Clinical Sciences 18 18 19 Health Services Research i9 Footnotes 2 RESEARCH TRAINING IN THE BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES --A NATIONAL OtlER:JIEW 2 3 The Research Training System 23 Levels o f Training 2 3 x

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PAGE Interaction among Basic Biomedical, Behavioral, and Clinical Scientists Source s o ~ Trainee S uppo rt The System of Support in the Biomedical and Behavior- al Sciences Graduate Student Support Postdoctoral Support Clin, cal Sciences Deveining the S upp ly and Demand ~ Need ~ f o r B io- medical and Behavioral Research Personnel Footnotes 3. ASSESSMENT OF MANPOWER NEEDS Markets for Biomedical and Behavioral Ph Scientists The Market for Postprof~ssional Investiga' ore in the Clinical Sciences The Market for Health Services Researchers S urinary Footnotes . D . 4. FUTURE DIRECTIONS Definition of Research Popular ion Ref inement 0 f S upp ly/Demand Ana ~ ys es Personnel Needs in Specialty Areas Al ternat ive S uppo rt Mechan i sms x~ 26 26 29 2g 31 33 33 35 36 36 52 S9 60 63 66 68 68

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B IBLIOG=PHY LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS IN THE APPENDIXES PAGE 71 79 APPENDIX I. Membership of Advisory Panels and Corrur~~ttee S Oaf f APPENDIX II . Supplementary Tables ~ 7 APPENDIX I7I NIH and ADA~MHA Co~r~nitments for E Y 1976 and FY 1977 by Initial Training Authority 10 APPENDIX IV. Training Programs of NTH and ADAMElA: FY ~ 975 Awards by P rogram Area and Institute/Division 117 APPENDIX ~ . destined ~ Sections o f The National Research Service Award Act of 1974: Title ~ of the National Research Act of 1974, PL 93-348, July 12, 1974 137 APP3ENO=X VI . NIH and ADAMHA Announcements for EY 1975 NRSA Program 141 APPENDIX VII. NTH and ADAMHA Annollncernents for FY 1976 NRSA Program 177 GLOSSARY 219 X11

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LI ST OF TABLES Table l. ~ Committee Recommendations for NTH and ADAMHA Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Traineeship and Fellowship Awards f rom FY ~ 9 7 7 Funds, Target Goals for FY 197 6 and Tentative Goals for FY 197 8 by Aggregate Field Table l. 2 Estimated Cost of Recommended Programs for EY 1976-78, NIE and ADAM~A Table 2.1 Primary Source and Type of Support for Full-t~e Graduate S tudents in the B Biomedical Sciences, 1972 and 1974 Table 3. ~ Employment Sector and Primary Work Activity of the Ph. D. Labor Forces in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, FY 1973 Table 3. 2 Age Distribution of the Ph. D. Labor Forces in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, FY 1973 Table 3 ~ 3 Phe D. Degrees as a Proportion of First- year Graduate Enrs: ~ iments S ix Years Earlier, 1966-75 Table 3. 4 Research and Training Activity of M. D. ~ s, 196g-73 Table 3.5 Medical School Enrollments, R and D Expen- ditures, and Clinical Faculty, 19 61-7 3 , with Projections to 1980 Table 3.6 Federal Expenditures for Eealth Services R and ~ and Biomedical Research in Relation to National and Federal Health Expenditures, 1967-72 X111 PAGE 14 16 32 38 41 42 54 58 61

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LIST OF FIGURES PAGE Figure l. ~ Summary of Committee Recommendation for NTH and AGATHA Research Training Awards ~ 5 Figure 2. ~ Primary Source and Type of Support for Full-time Graduate Students in the Biomedi- cal and Behavioral Sciences, 1974 Figure 3 . ~ Total R and D Expenditures in Academia and Expenditures per Ph. D. Researcher in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, 1960-73 (1967 Constant dollars) 30 ~4 Figure 3. 2 Total Graduate and Undergraduate Enroll- ments and Enrollments per Ph. D. Scientist Employed in Academia in Biomedical and Behavioral F ields, ~ ~ 6 0 - 7 3 4 5 Figure 3 . 3 Proportion cuff U. S . Ph. D. Recipients in Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences with Def inite Employment Commitments at the Time of Graduation, ~ 9 5 8-7 3 Figure 3. 4 Proportion of U. S. Ph. D. Recipients in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Planning Po stdoctoral S tudy, ~ 9 5 ~ - 7 3 Figure 3.5 Empicyment Sector Distribution of Entrants to the Ph. D. Labor Forces in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, 1960-72 Figure 3 . 6 Work Activity Distribution of Entrants to the Ph. D. Labor Forces in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, 1960-72 Figure 3.7 Medical School Full-time Faculty and Enroll- ments, 1962-72 ~7 49 50 55 Figure 3. ~ Medical School Research and Bevel opment Expenditures, Budgeted Vacancies, and Clinical Facuity/Student Ratio 5 6 x~v

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LIST OF TABLES AND FIGURES IN THE APPEND IXES APPENDIX II Supplementary 'Tables , Table lI. ~ Estimated Number of NIH and ADA>1HA Trainees and Fellows by Aggregate Field, Academic Levei, and Fiscal Year or Award Table IT . 2 Primary Source of Support for Full-time Graduate Students in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, 1972 and 1974 Table IT . 3 Primary Source of - Support by Type of Support for Full-time Graduate Students in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, 1974 Table IT. 4 Total ~ and D Expenditures Compared with the Size c, the Ph. D. Research Pool in Academia in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, 1960-73 (Ig67 constant dollars) Table IT. 5 Total Graduate and Undergraduate Enrollments Compared with the Size of the Academic Sector of the Ph. D. Market in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences Table IT. 6 Proportion of U. S. Ph. D. Recipients in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences with Definite Employment Commitments at the Time of Graduation, 1958-73 Table T].7 Proportion of U. S. Ph. D. Recipients in the Biomedical and Bena~rio~al Sciences P tanning Postdocto rat S tudy , ~ 9 5 ~ - 7 3 Table IT. 8 Employment Sector Distribution of Entrants to the Ph. D ~ Labor Forces in the 23iomed~cai and Behavioral Sciences, 1960-72 Table IT.9 Work Activity Distribution or Entrants to the Ph.D. Labor Forces in .h~ Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences, 1960-72 Table IT.10 Funding Levels of NTH and AD~U~A Research Training Programs, FY 1975, by Institute, Aggregate Piety, and Mechanism of Support Table IT. t: Health Services Research Training Programs of the National Center for Health Services Research (HRA) x

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APPENDIX II: NIH and ADAMHA Commitments in FY 1976 and FY 1977 by Initial Training Authority Table IIT. ~ Research Traineeships and Fellowships Awarded in FY 1575, together with Estimated Agency Commitments for FY 1 976 and FY 1977 by Aggregate Field and Academic Level Figure III. ~ Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Awards in FY 1975, together with Agency Commitments for FY 1976 and FY 1977 by Agency Figure ITI. 2 Research Train~eships and Fellowships Awarded in FY 1975, together with Agency Commitments for FY 1976 and FY 1977 by Agency Table ITI.2 NTH Predoctora~ and Postdoctoral Awards in FY 1975, together with Estimated Commitments for FY 1976 and FY 1977, by Aggregate Field and Category of Agency Training Program Table TII.3 Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Awards in FY 1975 by Aggregate Field, Initial Training Authority, and Awarding Institute Table ITI.4 Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Estimated Commit- ments in FY 1976 by Aggregate Field, Initial Training Authority, and Awarding Institute Table ITI.5 Predoctora~ and Postdoctoral Estimated Commit- ments in FY 1977 by Aggregate Field, Initial Training Authority, and Awarding Institute Table LIT. 6 NTH Predoctoral and Postdoctoral Awards in FY 1975, together with Estimated Commitments for FY 1976 and FY 1977, by Aggregate Field and Research Training Program Table III.7 Research Traineeship and Fellowship Awards in FY 1975 by Aggregate Field, Initial Training Authority, and Awarding Institute Table If I. ~ Research Traineeship and Fellowship Estimated Commitments in FY ~ 9 7 ~ by Aggregate F idly, Initial Training Authority, and Awarding T Institute Table III. 9 Research Traineeship and Fellowship Estimated Commitments in FY 1977 by Aggregate Field, Initial Training Authority, and Awarding Ins astute XXJ1

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APPENDIX IV Training Programs of NIH and ADAMS: FY 1975 Awards by Program Area and Institute/3ivision Tables IBM- Number of Pre- and Postdoctoral Awards in IV-16 FY 1975 by Aggregate Field and Program Area: Table IV.1 National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Table IV.2 National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism' and Digestive Diseases Table IV.3 National Cancer Institute Table IV.4 National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Table IV.S National Institute of Dental Research Table IV.6 National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Table IV.7 National Eye Institute ~ Table IV.8 National Institute of General Medical Sciences Table IV.9 National Heart and Lung Institute Table IV.lO National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke Table IV.lt National Library of Medicine Table IV.12 Division of Research Resources Table IV.13 National Institute on Aging Table IV.14 National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Table IV.15 National Institute on Drug Abuse Table IV.~6 National Institute of Mental Health Table IV.17 Summary of Pre- and Postdoctoral Awards in FY 1975 by Aggregate Fisid, Awarding Institute, and Mechanism of Support (NTH and ADA XV1L

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