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PERSONNEL NEEDS AND TRAINING FOR BIOMEDICAL AND 13 EHA5JIORAL RESEARCH THE 19 7 6 REPORT of the COMMITTEE: ON A STUDY OF NATIONAL REEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL . COMMISSION ON HULA RESOURCES NAT TONAL RESEARCH COUNC IL National Academy of Science Washington, D . C . 1976

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NOTICE: The pro ject that is the sub ject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy o f Engineer- ing, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Com- mittee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Co~r~nittee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, tie National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine The work on which this publication is based was performed pursuant to Contract No. NOl-OD-5-2109 with the National Insti- tutes of Health of the Department of Health, Education, and Wel- f are . Avail able from: Cor~unission on Human Resources National Research Council 2 l O l Con s t i but ion Avenue, N . W . Washington, D.C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SC' ENCES OFFICE OF TH E PRS'O~NT 2101 CONSTITUTION AVENUE WASHiNGTOhI, O- C- 20018 May 7 ~ 1976 The Honorable I3 avid Mathews Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare Washington, D. C. 20201 My dear Mr. Secretary: ~ am pleased to present to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare the 1976 report of the CoTrTnittee on . a Study of National Needs for Biomedical and Behave oral Research Personnel . It is the second annual report in the continuing study undertaken by the Nationa1 Research Council pursuant to Title I of the National Research Act of 1974 (PL 93-348~. The work has been supported under Contract N01 OF 5 2109 with the Nate onal Institutes of Health. The Act states (Section 473 (a)) that the purposes of the study are to: rt(~) establish (~) the Nat~on's overall need for biomedical and behavioral.research personnel, (B) the subject areas in which such personnel are needed and the number of such personnel needed in each such area, arid (~) the Births and extent clef training which should be provided such personnel; (2) assess (A) current training programs availab~ e for the training of biomedical and behavioral research personnel which are conducted under this Act at or through institutes under the National Institutes of Health and the Alcohol. Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administrations and (B) other current trading programs available f or the training of such personnel, (3) identify the kids of research positions avail- ablLe to and held by individuals completing such programs; (4) deter- m~e, to the extent f easible, whether the prod ref erred to in clause (B) of paragraph (2 ~ would be adequate to meet the needs established under paragraph (~) if the programs referred to in clause (A) of paragraph (2) were terminated; and ~ 5) determine what modif ications in the programs ref erred to in paragraph ~ 2) are required to meet the needs established under paragraph All."

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stat f . :Enclosure In the eleven months that have elapsed since the submission of the 1975 report, the Co.,''i.~ttee has increased its ability to respond to these requirements . The present report, unlike the 19 75 report, contains recommendations for departures from the prevailing training levels in three of four broad training; areas as well as for registry button of training funds between predoctora~ and postdoctoral appointments . NevertheJ ess, much remains to be done before the Committee will have achieved its goal of responding fully to the requirements of the Act. I trust that the year ahead will see further progress toward this goal. We shall be glad to discuss the report with you and your Sincerely yours, ,^ P 1~i~ President -

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PREFACE This 1976 report is the second of the annual reports prepared by the committee on a Study of National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel in a continuing study that was established pursuant ~ the provisions of the National Research Service Award Act of 1974 (Public Law g 3- 348~. The report presents the results of word< by the Committee and its advisory panels and staff on a limited number of questions of pressing importance. The broader set of complex issues addressed by the Act and surn~narized in the operating pages of Chapter ~ wil ~ guide the Comrnitte-e in its future activities. The Committee addressed itself in this report primaril y to the most pressing issue, that of making specific recommendations for the number of individuals who should be supported by the research training programs of the National Institutes of Ileal th area the Alcohol, Drug Abuse ~ and Mental Health Administration during fiscal years ~ 977 and ~ 978 in each of four broad fiel ds: basic biomedical sciences, behavioral sciences, clinical sciences, and health services research. In addition, the Committee has made specific recommendations with regard both to the numbers to be supported at the various academic levels of training and to the mechani sm s by which funding should be provided . The Committee will monitor the effectiveness and impact of its current set of recommendations over the coming year. It has al so developed a set of goals and planned a set of supporting activities that will permit a wider array of issues to be studied and reported upon in the ensuing annual reports. Because this report is one of a continuing series, the reader is ref erred to the f irst annul report, that f or 1975' as well as to the report of the feasibility study issued in February 1975 (see Bibliagraphy) for details concerning the history of the Committee, its organization, activities, and previous reco~runendations. The earlier reports treat the principles that underlie research training and the problems that are inherent in studies of profess tonal personnel. They also contain discussions of the re ~ ati ons hi p o f f ederal ly supported res ear ch tra ini ng programs to health res earch and health care needs of the nation, the history of the growth of federally supported research training, and a description of some characteristics and activities of National Institutes of Health-supported trainees and fellows. Although no attempt has been made to duplicate such information in the current report, Chapter 2 enlarges upon the principles enunciated previously, whi le v

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Chapter 3 develops and refines the i ssues related to personnel supply and to national needs and market demands. Chapter 4 relates the provisions of the Act to areas that will require special attention by the Committee in its continuing study. Central to all of these efforts is the fundamental issue of the degree or extent to which it Is possible and useful to define and establish human-resource requirements for increasingly fine fields of specialization within the biomedical and behavioral sciences. In addition, the Committee is fully aware that the overall effectiveness of the nation' s biomedical and behavioral research enterprise is directly dependent upon the quality of the personnel who are trained to conduct such research as wet ~ as to teach others research skills. The Committee recognizes the need to improve the quality both of individual investigators and of the academic environment: in which research training is provided. Both of these considerations--specification of personnel needs in the suLf ields and enhancement of the quality of the trainees and of the training process--will guide the Committee ' s future ef f carts to respond more ful ly to the tasks established by the legislation. Robert J. Glaser~ M. D. Chairman vi

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ACENOWLEDGMEN[S Since its inception, the Committee has benefited front the support, advice, and information provided by other organizations concerned with personnel studies and activities. In particular, the Committee acknowledges the assistance of- the Association of American Medical Col ~ eges, the American Medical Association ~ various professional societies and associations that have both volunteer e-d and responded to requests for assistance, and many units and offices within the National Science Foundation and the Bureau of Labor Statistics. The Committee wishes to acknowledge the help provided by Donald S. Fredrickson. M. D., Director of the National Institutes of Health, and James O. I:stister, Administrator of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Rentals Health Administration, together- with senior members of their staffs, who have met with the Committee for informal discussions and have provided much useful information. - The Committee is especial, y indebted to the chairmen and members of its f ive panels for their intensive efforts under severe time constraints to address complex issues and provide the advice that the Committee required in order to arrive at its final recommendations. The Committee has maintained a cl ose and active interest in the work of the President's Biomedical Research Panel, under the chairmanship calf Franklin D. Murphy, and of its several interdisciplinary cluster groups. Five members of the Committee and its panels have served on the interdisciplinary cluster groups . The stat f s of the two studies have also been in close communication. These joint memberships and liaison arrangements have helped to keep the Committee aware of the general progress of the panels t discussions and of their implications for research personnel issues. Continued liaison with groups that monitor the status, programs, and directions of biomedical and behavioral research funded by the federal government is also planned by the Corrunittee. Only in this way can maximum eff activeness be achieved with whatever federal support is provided to individuals and institutions for training personnel who will participate in and help advance the biomedical and behavioral research programs of: the country. The Committee has had the assistance of many individua Is. Recognizing that it is nei ther possib' e nor appropriate to cite all such instances, the Committee nonetheless wishes to acknowledge particul arly the fol lowing: Vincent E. Price, Charles A. Mil ler' Solomon Schneyer, William E. Batchelor, Joseph A. Brack ett, and a a ~1

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William L. Copeland of the National Institutes of Health; David F. Refau~rer, Fred Elmadjian, and Michele W. Harvey of the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration; and Daniel Fox and Jean Carmody of the Health Resources Adminisi:r ation. All of them have given generously of their 't ime i n prove ding in f ormati on, m e eting with the Commi thee and panels, and advising upon federal policy relative to the administration of agency-supported research training programs. Special thanks are accorded to Robert A. Alberty, Chairman clef the Commission on Human Resources of the National Research Councils National Academy of Sciences, and William C. Felly, Executive Director of the Commissions and his immediate staff, who have provided helpful avarice and support throughout the Co~nittee's work. Finally, the Committee acknowledges with pleasure the effective work accompl ished by a, ~ of its staff, especial y Allen M. Singer, who served as Acting Staff Director during the initial 4 months of formation of this report. Other significant contributions were made by Porter E. Cogg~shall, Samuel S . Herman, and Robert G. Snyder. Prudence W. Brown, Corazon M. Francisco, Kay C. Harris, and EN izabeth D. Skinner led the efforts of the supporting staff. Superb secretarial support under demanding conditions was provided by Mary P . Barbour, Llyn M. Ellison, an d Regina C. Jacobs Pamel a C. Etert, Executive Secretary for the Behavioral Sciences and Health Services Research panel s, made many contributions following her appointment midway in the period covered by this report. Above al], the Committee is deeply indebted to Herbert I3. Pahl ~ who as Staff Director provided leadership in carrying the study forward to its ~ 976 milestone . . ~ V111

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COMMITTEE ON A STUDY OF NATIONAL NEEDS FOR BI - MEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL Chairman: *Robert J. GLASER, M. D. Pres ident The Henry J. Kais er Family Foundation Vice Chairman: *Henry W. RIECKEN, Ph. D. Professor of Behavioral Sciences University of Pennsylvania John J. BURNS, Ph.D. Vice President of Research Hoffmann-~a Roche, Inc. Nutley, New Jersey Allan M. CARTTER, Ph.D. Professor of Higher Education Director, Laboratory of Research in Higher Education University of California, Los Angeles *Julius H. COMROE, Jr., M.D. Professor of Physiology University of California, San Francisco Dorothy M. HORST=NN, M. D. School of Medicine Department of Epidemiology and Public Health Yale University *Peter Barton MUTT, LL. Let. Covington & Burl ing Washington, D . C. John E. JACOBS, Ph. D. Walter P. Murphy Professor of Electrical Engineering and Engineering Sc fences Director, Biomedical Engineering Center Northwestern University *Myers 0 f the Executive Committee LX David MECHANIC ~ Ph. D ~ Professor of Sociology University of Wisconsin Robert S. MORISON, M.D. Professor Emeritus Richard J. Schwartz Professor of Science and Society Program on Science, Technology, and Society Corne 1 ~ Univers ity Lincoln E. MOSES, Ph. D. Professor of Statistics Stanford University *Carl PF.AFFMANN, Ph. D. Vice President Roc}