1. Material for this section has been drawn from a variety of sources, including work commissioned by the study committee in 1992 and provided by Ms. Judith Grumstrup-Scott and Ms. Beryl Beaderly. Sections have also been drawn from previous NRC study committee reports, most notably that of the 1978 study committee. The last section on evaluation issues is drawn from a paper by Dr. Georgine Pion commissioned by the 1989 NRC study committee.
2. In October 1992, the research components of the three institutes of ADAMHA joined the National Institutes of Health.
3. For example, earlier study committees called for a shift from predoctoral to postdoctoral support in the behavioral sciences, which has occurred.
4. The relative diminution of the fellowship mechanism within the NRSA program is an interesting feature of the history of the NRSA program. The 1974 authorization specified that not less than 25 percent of total support should be directed to fellowship support; the fraction has declined to 15 percent in recent years.
Ahrens, E.H., Jr. 1992 The Crisis in Clinical Research: Overcoming Institutional Obstacles . New York: Oxford University Press.
Coggeshall, P.E. and P.W. Brown 1984 The Career Achievements of NIH Predoctoral Trainees and Fellows. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Garrison, H.H. and P.W. Brown 1986 Career Achievements of NIH Postdoctoral Trainees and Fellows. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Garrison, H.H., P.W. Brown and R.W. Hill 1985 Minority Access to Research Careers: An Evaluation of the Honors Undergraduate Research Training Program. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.
Lenfant, C. 1989 Review of the National Institutes of Health Biomedical Research Training Programs. Bethesda, Maryland: NIH.
Levey, G.S., C.R. Sherman, N.O. Gentile, L.J. Hough, T.H. Dial, and P. Jolly 1988 Postdoctoral research training of full-time faculty in academic departments of medicine. Annals of Internal Medicine 109: 414-418.
Long, J.S., P.D. Allison, and R. McGinnis 1979 Entrance into the academic career. American Sociological Review 44: 816-830.
McGinnis, R., P.D. Allison, and J.S. Long 1982 Postdoctoral training in bioscience: Allocation and outcomes. Social Forces 60: 701-723.
McGinnis, R. and J.S. Long 1988 Entry into academia: Effects of stratification, geography, and ecology . In Academic Labor Markets and Careers, ed. D.W. Breneman and T.I.K. Youn. New York: Falmer Press.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) 1986 Effects of the National Research Service Award Program on Biomedical Research and Teaching Careers. Bethesda, MD: NIH.
National Research Council (NRC) 1975 Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research . Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
1976 Research Training and Career Patterns of Bioscientists: The Training Programs of the National Institutes of Health. Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
1977 Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research . Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
1978 Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research . Washington, D.C.: National Academy of Sciences.
Sherman, C.R. 1983a Notes on the NIH Role in Support of Postdoctoral Research Training of Two Groups of Physicians. (Available from Charles Sherman, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20092.)
1983b Training and Manpower Development. Presentation at the Meeting of the Advisory Committee to the Director , NIH, Bethesda, MD.
1989 The NIH Role in the Training of Individual Physician Faculty: A Supplementary Analysis. (Available from Charles Sherman, NIH, 9000 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20092.)