APPENDIX F

DATA TABLES



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APPENDIX F DATA TABLES

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APPENDIX TABLE F-1 National Support for Health R&D, by Performer and Source of Funds, 1980-92   1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 (est.) 1992 (est.)   Millions of current dollars Total 7,967 8,739 9,595 10,778 12,159 13,565 14,899 16,940 19,011 20,977 23,076 25,561 28,125 Source of Funds Government 5,203 5,413 5,612 6,117 6,887 7,675 7,929 9,037 9,725 10,634 11,422 12,413 13,424 Federal 4,723 4,848 4,970 5,399 6,087 6,791 6,895 7,847 8,425 9,163 9,791 10,711 11,596 NIH 3,182 3,333 3,433 3,789 4,257 4,828 5,005 5,852 6,292 6,778 7,136 7,711 8,423 State and Local 480 564 642 718 800 884 1,034 1,191 1,300 1,471 1,632 1,702 1,823 Industry 2,459 2,998 3,593 4,205 4,765 5,352 6,188 7,103 8,432 9,404 10,634 12,020 13,505 Private nonprofit 305 328 390 456 507 538 782 800 854 939 1,020 1,128 1,196 Howard Hughes a 18 20 25 54 79 51 247 183 179 197 215 250 281 Performer Government 1,487 1,575 1,669 1,813 1,997 2,140 2,155 2,389 2,590 2,578 2,861 3,300 3,568 Federal 1,284 1,364 1,448 1,577 1,741 1,869 1,848 2,042 2,213 2,161 2,403 2,816 3,049 State and Local 203 211 221 236 256 271 307 347 377 417 458 484 520 Industry b 2,249 2,659 3,161 3,668 4,216 4,660 5,293 6,002 6,927 7,901 8,817 9,578 11,006 Higher education b 3,005 3,211 3,388 3,779 4,274 4,745 5,320 5,056 6,593 7,238 7,744 8,467 9,173 Private nonprofit b 726 751 485 887 976 1,115 1,157 1,352 1,455 1,798 1,886 1,931 2,087 Foreign 499 543 593 631 697 805 975 1,140 1,446 1,462 1,769 2,078 2,291

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Biomedical R&D price index c 0.649 0.713 0.774 0.819 0.867 0.911 0.949 1 1.05 1.106 1.166 1.224 1.284   Millions of 1987 dollars Total 12,276 12,257 12,397 13,160 14,024 14,890 15,700 16,940 18,106 18,967 19,791 20,883 21,904 Source of Funds Government 8,017 7,592 7,251 7,469 7,943 8,425 8,355 9,037 9,262 9,615 9,796 10,141 10,455 Federal 7,277 6,799 6,421 6,592 7,021 7,454 7,266 7,847 8,024 8,285 8,397 8,751 9,031 NIH 4,903 4,675 4,435 4,626 4,910 5,300 5,274 5,852 5,992 6,128 6,120 6,300 6,560 State and Local 740 791 829 877 923 970 1,090 1,191 1,238 1,330 1,400 1,391 1,420 Industry 3,789 4,205 4,642 5,134 5,496 5,875 6,521 7,103 8,030 8,503 9,120 9,820 10,518 Private nonprofit 470 460 504 557 585 591 824 800 813 849 875 922 931 Howard Hughes a 28 28 32 66 91 56 260 183 170 178 184 204 219 Performer Government 2,291 2,209 2,156 2,214 2,303 2,349 2,271 2,389 2,467 2,331 2,454 2,696 2,779 Federal 1,978 1,913 1,871 1,926 2,008 2,052 1,947 2,042 2,108 1,954 2,061 2,301 2,375 State and Local 313 296 286 288 295 297 323 347 359 377 393 395 405 Industry b 3,465 3,729 4,084 4,479 4,863 5,115 5,577 6,002 6,597 7,144 7,562 7,825 8,572 Higher education b 4,630 4,504 4,377 4,614 4,930 5,209 5,606 5,056 6,279 6,544 6,642 6,917 7,144 Private nonprofit b 1,119 1,053 627 1,083 1,126 1,224 1,219 1,352 1,386 1,626 1,617 1,578 1,625 Foreign 769 762 766 770 804 884 1,027 1,140 1,377 1,322 1,517 1,698 1,784 a For Howard Hughes Medical Institute, figures are for the direct conduct of biomedical research, and exclude support for scientific career development. Figures for 1985 include only 8 months of operations because of change in fiscal year. b Includes expenditures for federally funded research and development centers administered by organizations in the respective sectors. c The NIH Biomedical Research and Development Price Index differs from the implicit price deflator for the Gross National Product. SOURCE: National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators - 1993. Washington, D.C.: National Science Foundation, 1994.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-2 R&D in the National Institutes of Health: Congressional Action on R &D in the FY 1994 Budget (budget authority in millions of dollars) a       Action by Congress   FY 1993 FY 1994 FY 1994 Change from Request Change from FY 1993   Est. Requested Approved Amount Percent Amount Percent Cancer 1,978.3 2,142.1 2,082.3 −59.8 −2.8 104.0 5.3 Heart, Lung and Blood 1,214.7 1,198.4 1,277.9 79.5 6.6 63.2 5.2 Dental Research 161.1 163.0 169.5 6.5 4.0 8.4 5.2 Diabetes, Digestive, and Kidney Diseases 680.7 677.1 716.5 39.4 5.8 35.8 5.3 Neurological Disorders and Stroke 599.5 590.1 630.7 40.6 6.9 31.2 5.2 Allergy and Infectious Diseases 988.4 1,065.6 1,065.6 0.0 0.0 77.2 7.8 General Medical Sciences 832.2 833.1 875.5 42.4 5.1 43.3 5.2 Child Health & Human Development 527.8 542.4 555.2 12.8 2.4 27.4 5.2 Eye 275.9 272.2 290.3 18.1 6.6 14.4 5.2 Environment Health Sciences 251.2 261.3 264.2 2.9 1.1 13.0 5.2 Aging 399.5 394.2 420.3 26.1 6.6 20.8 5.2 Arthritis & Musculoskeletal & Skin Diseases 212.2 210.4 223.3 12.9 6.1 11.1 5.2 Deafness & Communication Disorder 154.8 153.1 162.8 9.7 6.3 8.0 5.2 Research Resources 312.7 327.9 331.9 4.0 1.2 19.2 6.1 Nursing Research 48.5 49.0 51.0 2.0 4.1 2.5 5.2 Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse 176.4 173.6 185.6 12.0 6.9 9.2 5.2 Drug Abuse 404.2 407.1 425.2 18.1 4.4 21.0 5.2 Mental Health 583.1 576.0 613.4 37.4 6.5 30.3 5.2 Human Genome 106.1 134.5 128.7 −5.8 −4.3 22.6 21.3 Fogarty International Center 19.7 20.0 21.7 1.7 8.5 2.0 10.2 National Library of Medicine 103.6 133.3 120.0 −13.3 −10.0 16.4 15.8 Office of Director 190.3 234.9 233.6 −1.3 −0.6 43.3 22.8 Buildings and Facilities 108.7 108.7 111.0 2.3 2.1 2.3 2.1 TOTAL, NIH Budget 10,329.6 10,668.0 10,956.2 288.2 2.7 626.6 6.1 Estimated Research Training −349.0 −355.0 −373.4 −18.4 5.2 −24.4 7.0 Other Non-R&D −90.6 −105.1 −107.6 −2.5 2.4 −17.0 18.8 TOTAL, NIH R&D 9,890.0 10,207.9 10,475.2 267.3 2.6 585.2 5.9 a Author's estimates. Includes conduct of R&D and R&D facilities. SOURCE: American Association for the Advancement of Science, Congressional Action on Research and Development in the FY 1994 Budget. Washington, D.C.: AAAS, 1993.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-3 Age Profile of the U.S. Biomedical Science Work Force by Gender: 1981-1991 (in percent) Age 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Total Biomedical 64,538 66,363 75,755 81,058 88,647 91,959 Under 30 5.35 4.75 3.43 2.36 2.72 2.44 30-34 20.20 18.40 17.96 17.29 15.54 13.06 35-39 24.37 23.36 22.66 20.91 20.20 22.17 40-44 16.51 19.48 21.18 21.94 20.20 19.89 45-49 10.34 11.27 12.80 14.54 17.27 18.40 50-54 9.90 9.02 8.38 8.89 9.56 11.59 55-59 7.05 7.55 7.08 7.06 6.74 6.47 60-64 4.28 4.17 4.29 4.89 5.37 4.01 65-69 1.70 1.61 1.81 1.73 1.91 1.76 70+ 0.31 0.39 0.41 0.40 0.50 0.21 Median Age (years) 39.04 39.90 40.42 41.16 41.87 42.11 Total Men 53,868 54,219 60,800 64,317 69,083 70,309 Under 30 4.59 4.24 2.73 1.91 2.31 1.99 30-34 19.01 16.88 16.44 15.33 13.92 11.34 35-39 24.37 22.98 22.03 20.20 19.01 20.74 40-44 16.85 19.95 21.75 22.20 20.06 19.44 45-49 10.83 11.85 13.54 15.45 18.39 19.41 50-54 10.39 9.60 9.00 9.73 10.24 12.87 55-59 7.31 7.89 7.42 7.47 7.37 7.45 60-64 4.58 4.51 4.67 5.33 6.03 4.54 65-69 1.78 1.72 1.97 1.97 2.16 2.01 70+ 0.28 0.37 0.47 0.42 0.51 0.22 Median Age (years) 40.10 40.98 41.03 42.33 43.18 43.60 Total Women 10,670 12,144 14,955 16,741 19,564 21,650 Under 30 9.17 7.02 6.27 4.09 4.14 3.91 30-34 26.21 25.20 24.16 24.81 21.26 18.65 35-39 24.35 25.07 25.20 23.64 24.40 26.82 40-44 14.80 17.42 18.88 20.92 20.68 21.37 45-49 7.84 8.66 9.80 11.05 13.33 15.13 50-54 7.41 6.42 5.88 5.67 7.17 7.40 55-59 5.73 6.00 5.71 5.47 4.52 3.32 60-64 2.75 2.65 2.75 3.18 3.02 2.29 65-69 1.33 1.09 1.18 0.84 1.01 0.92 70+ 0.42 0.47 0.15 0.33 0.47 0.20 Median Age (years) 37.50 38.05 38.38 38.96 39.55 39.65 NOTE: “Biomedical science work force” consists of those working in a biomedical science field, including postdoctoral appointees, regardless of Ph.D. field. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3-1, Figure 3-2, and Figure 3-3.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-4 Citizenship Status of Employed Biomedical Science Ph.D.s: 1981-1991 (in percent) Citizenship Status 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Total N 58,446 63,037 70,077 75,192 81,086 85,596 U.S. Citizen 95.0 95.8 95.7 95.5 95.3 94.0 U.S. Native born 87.5 87.3 87.1 86.8 86.3 85.4 Non-U.S. citizen 5.0 4.2 4.3 4.5 4.7 6.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 NOTE: “Employed Biomedical Science Ph.D.s” are those with Ph.D.s in biomedical science fields, regardless of field of employment. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. Prior to 1991, the SDR collected data by mail methods only. In 1991, the survey had both a mail componenet and a telephone follow-up component. In this table, 1991 estimates are based on “mail-only” data to maintain greater comparability with earlier years. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3-4.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-5 Total Employment by Sector of the U.S. Biomedical Science Work Force: 1981-1991   Total Academic Industry Government Hospitals/Clinics Other Total Biomedical             1981 63,942 40,855 11,323 6,084 2,983 2,697 1983 65,823 40,616 12,992 6,432 3,054 2,729 1985 74,217 45,142 13,263 6,835 3,636 3,341 1987 80,636 47,657 18,112 7,629 3,738 3,500 1989 88,344 51,134 21,658 8,257 3,674 3,621 1991 91,240 49,032 25,647 8,386 4,261 3,914 Men             1981 53,354 33,447 10,277 5,062 2,542 2,026 1983 53,688 32,134 11,619 5,383 2,447 2,105 1985 59,469 35,247 13,366 5,472 2,877 2,507 1987 63,921 37,003 15,579 5,961 2,910 2,468 1989 68,820 38,878 18,180 6,461 2,795 2,506 1991 69,753 36,164 21,175 6,378 3,107 2,929 Women             1981 10,588 7,408 1,046 1,022 441 671 1983 12,135 8,482 1,373 1,373 607 624 1985 14,748 9,895 1,897 1,363 759 834 1987 16,715 10,654 2,533 1,668 828 1,032 1989 19,524 12,256 3,478 1,796 879 1,115 1991 21,487 12,868 4,472 2,008 1,154 985 NOTE: “Biomedical science work force” consists of those working in a biomedical science field, including postdoctoral appointees, regardless of Ph.D. field. Cases with missing sector or work activity excluded. See Appendix F-3. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3-5.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-6 Doctorate Recipients in the Biomedical Sciences by Gender: 1981-1992     Gender (percent) Year Total Male Female 1981 3,444 70.5 29.5 1982 3,463 69.0 31.0 1983 3,317 65.1 34.9 1984 3,386 65.6 34.4 1985 3,197 64.0 36.0 1986 3,222 62.7 37.3 1987 3,200 61.8 38.2 1988 3,467 60.2 39.8 1989 3,490 59.2 40.8 1990 3,542 59.3 40.7 1991 3,745 58.6 41.4 1992 3,787 57.3 42.7 NOTE: Data limited to U.S. citizens and permanent residents. Cases with missing gender data are excluded. The Survey of Earned Doctorates is sponsored by five Federal Agencies: National Science Foundation (NSF); National Institutes of Health (NIH); U.S. Department of Education (USED); National Endowment for the Humanities (NIH); and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); and conducted by the National Research Council (NRC). SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Earned Doctorates. (Annual) See Figure 3-6 and Figure 3-7.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-7 Doctorate Recipients in the Biomedical Sciences by Citizenship: 1981-1992     Citizenship (percent) Year Total U.S. Non-U.S. 1981 3,745 87.7 12.3 1982 3,823 86.8 13.2 1983 3,679 86.3 13.7 1984 3,761 86.1 13.9 1985 3,637 83.9 16.1 1986 3,655 84.2 15.8 1987 3,737 80.8 19.2 1988 4,085 79.7 20.3 1989 4,174 78.7 21.3 1990 4,496 74.0 26.0 1991 4,881 71.3 28.7 1992 5,073 69.1 30.9 NOTE: Cases with missing data are excluded. The Survey of Earned Doctorates is sponsored by five Federal Agencies: National Science Foundation (NSF); National Institutes of Health (NIH); U.S. Department of Education (USED); National Endowment for the Humanities (NIH); and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA); and conducted by the National Research Council (NRC). SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Earned Doctorates. (Annual) See Figure 3-8.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-8 Unemployment Rates for Biomedical and Physical Science Ph.D.s and the U.S. Labor Force: 1973-1991   1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Biomedical Sciences 1.1 1.2 1.6 1.2 1.2 1.4 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.5 Physical Sciences 1.6 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.6 1.0 0.6 1.1 0.6 1.4 U.S. Labor Force 4.9 8.5 7.1 5.8 7.6 9.6 7.2 6.2 5.3 6.7 NOTE: The unemployment rate is defined as the percent of the field-specific labor force who are not employed and are seeking work. The field-specific labor forces include individuals who have Ph.D.s in these fields and who are either employed or unemployed. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. Prior to 1991, the SDR collected data by mail methods only. In 1991, the survey had both a mail component and a telephone follow-up component. In this table, 1991 estimates are based on “mail-only” data to maintain greater comparability with earlier years. SOURCES: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients, (Biennial); Office of the President of the United States, Economic Report of the President, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1993. See Figure 3-9. APPENDIX TABLE F-9 Underemployment Rates for Employed Biomedical and Physical Science Ph.D.s: 1973-1991   1973 1975 1977 1979 1981 1983 1985 1987 1989 1991 Biomedical Sciences 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 0.9 1.1 0.8 1.2 Physical Sciences 1.5 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.8 1.1 NOTE: The underemployment rate is defined as the percent of the field-specific employed doctorates who are working part-time but seeking full-time jobs, or are working in a non-S&E job when an S&E job would be preferred. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. Prior to 1991, the SDR collected data by mail methods only. In 1991, the survey had both a mail component and a telephone follow-up component. In this table, 1991 estimates are based on “mail-only” data to maintain greater comparability with earlier years. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3-10.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-10 Percentage of Biomedical Work Force at Career Age 4-5 who are in Postdoctoral Appointments: 1973-1991 Year Percent 1973 6.6 1975 11.4 1977 13.5 1979 16.0 1981 20.7 1983 19.2 1985 20.9 1987 18.4 1989 21.4 1991 16.8 NOTE: “Biomedical work force” consists of those working in a biomedical science field, including postdoctoral appointees, regardless of Ph.D. field. Estimates are subject to sampling error. Comparisons between 1991 estimates and those of earlier years should be made with caution due to changes in survey methodology. SOURCE: NRC, Survey of Doctorate Recipients. (Biennial) See Figure 3-11.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-22 Trends in the Supply of and Demand for Clinical Scientists   Fiscal Year   1981 1982 1983 a 1984 1985 SUPPLY INDICATORS (New Entrants): Professional doctorates participating in NIH training grants and fellowships b 2,172 2,153 2,290 2,367 2,385 M.D. degrees awarded 15,673 15,985 15,801 16,369 16,321 DEMAND INDICATORS: Expenditures for clinical R & D in medical schools (1987 $, mil.) $783 $773 $811 $856 $961 Professional service income in medical schools (1987 $, mil.) $1,301 $1,510 $1,829 $1,979 $2,340 Total revenue (all sources), (1987 $, mil.) 8,143 8,611 9,380 9,901 10,676 Budgeted vacancies in medical schools: Clinical departments 2,231 2,264 2,270 2,402 2,572 Basic science departments 656 668 671 705 801 Clinical faculty/student ratio c 0.331 0.341 0.346 0.349 0.354 LABOR FORCE M.D.s primarily engaged in research d 17,901 16,743 18,535 22,945 23,268 Full-time faculty in clinical departments 37,716 40,148 41,938 43,443 45,007 NIH research grants awarded to M.D.s: e Number of competing grants 1,868 1,791 1,962 2,151 2,229 % of total competing grants 34% 32% 32% 34% 31% M.D. applicants for NIH research grants: Number of competing applicants 4,525 4,716 4,658 4,844 5,264 % of total competing applicants 31% 30% 30% 30% 30% M.D. success rate: M.D. awards/M.D. applicants 41% 38% 42% 44% 42% M.D. awardees/all awardees 34% 32% 32% 33% 31% ENROLLMENTS: Medical students 65,412 66,484 66,886 67,437 67,086 Residents and clinical fellows f 52,871 57,504 59,138 60,442 63,507 Total 118,283 123,988 126,024 127,879 130,593 a Financial data from the University of Washington and Mayo Medical School were included for the first time in 1983. b Includes Fogarty International Center programs. c Ratio of full-time clinical faculty to a 4-year weighted average of total enrollments of medical students, residents and clinical fellows(WS) ,where (WS)t = 1/6(St + 2S(t-1) + 2S(t - 2) + S(t-3)).

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1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 Annual Growth Rate Latest Annual Change Average Annual Change 2,599 2,619 2,631 2,593 2,437 2,232 3.2% -1.4% 69 15,979 15,719 15,932 15,617 15,338 15,435 0.2% -1.8% 34 $1,061 $1,118 $1,204 $1,338 $1,516 n/a 6.8% 11.1% $65 $2,422 $2,745 $3,038 $4,333 $4,958 $5,634 14.5% 14.4% $349 11,451 12,589 13,577 15,792 16,626 n/a 7.7% 16.3% $830 2,345 2,510 2,564 2,856 3,136 3,601 3.7% 9.8% 94 757 785 718 720 667 643 -0.7% -7.4% -5 0.368 0.377 0.408 0.432 0.442 0.452 2.9% 2.2% 0.011 17,847 n/a 16,586 16,941 16,930 n/a 1.7% 2.1% 270 47,193 48,834 52,260 55,468 57,202 59,189 4.8% 3.1% 2,104 2,075 2,394 2,143 1,907 1,860 2,141 -1.3% -11.0% -26 30% 32% 30% 31% 32% 31% -0.7% 3.0% -0.23% 5,359 5,262 5,290 5,311 5,422 5,486 1.9% 0.4% 90 29% 29% 28% 28% 28% 29% -1.4% -1.5% -0.41% 39% 45% 41% 36% 34% 39% -3.1% -11.4% -1.32% 30% 32% 30% 31% 32% 31% -0.6% -0.9% -0.20% 66,607 65,918 65,711 65,150 65,081 64,996 0.4% -0.1% 227 60,875 61,539 62,880 64,867 67,110 68,329 2.7% 3.5% 1,538 127,482 127,457 128,591 130,017 132,191 133,325 1.4% 1.3% 1,766 d There is some question about the interpretation of these data since they include many trainee graduate medical programs. 1984 data are previously unpublished; AMA reports them to be to “within 100 persons ”. 1987 data remain unpublished. e Data for M.D.s do NOT exclude those who may also have a Ph.D. degree. As a result, the percent M.D. awardees and percent Ph.D. awardees, can be greater than 100%. f The residents and clinical fellows reported here include only those in accredited programs af with medical schools. SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1992.

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APPENDIX TABLE F-23 R&D Expenditures in U.S. Medical Schools, by Type of Institutional Control, 1964-91, ($ thousands)   Total R&D Expenditures Fiscal Current Dollars a 1987 Dollars Year Total Public Private Total Public Private 1964 310,412 128,710 181,702 1,120,621 464,657 655,964 1965 344,787 143,627 201,160 1,214,039 505,729 708,310 1966 377,028 155,960 221,068 1,327,563 549,155 778,408 1967 422,467 178,881 243,586 1,436,963 608,439 828,524 1968 470,958 202,440 268,518 1,554,317 668,119 886,198 1969 489,300 196,800 292,500 1,469,369 590,991 878,378 1970 498,066 205,962 292,104 1,418,991 586,786 832,205 1971 499,841 207,346 292,495 1,424,048 590,729 833,319 1972 558,120 227,638 330,482 1,508,432 615,238 893,195 1973 606,921 264,808 342,113 1,564,229 682,495 881,735 1974 657,287 300,479 356,808 1,463,891 669,218 794,673 1975 784,537 363,893 420,644 1,594,587 739,620 854,967 1976 839,170 385,857 453,313 1,705,630 784,262 921,368 1977 973,827 449,709 524,118 1,862,002 859,864 1,002,138 1978 1,046,121 490,029 556,092 1,871,415 876,617 994,798 1979 1,190,689 585,488 605,201 1,817,846 893,875 923,971 1980 1,352,409 677,085 675,324 1,886,205 944,331 941,874 1981 1,477,919 766,565 711,354 2,061,254 1,069,128 992,126 1982 1,605,585 828,954 776,631 2,034,962 1,050,639 984,323 1983 c 1,787,532 937,510 850,022 2,133,093 1,118,747 1,014,346 1984 1,997,317 1,065,607 931,710 2,194,854 1,170,997 1,023,857 1985 2,301,421 1,229,256 1,072,165 2,437,946 1,302,178 1,135,768 1986 2,554,561 1,400,225 1,154,336 2,706,103 1,483,289 1,222,814 1987 2,800,837 1,500,175 1,300,662 2,890,441 1,548,168 1,342,272 1988 3,043,336 1,592,243 1,451,093 3,043,336 1,592,243 1,451,093 1989 3,633,314 1,992,784 1,640,529 3,351,765 1,838,362 1,513,403 1990 4,264,303 2,133,545 2,130,757 3,777,061 1,889,765 1,887,296 1991 4,640,646 2,304,664 2,335,982 4,110,404 2,041,332 2,069,072 a Figures were obtained from the Association of American Medi Colleges (1972-92a, annual tabulations). Because AAMC data were incomplete, figures for 1963 acalnd 1969 were obtained from the American Medical Association (1960-90). Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. b From the U.S. Bureau of the Census (1992). c Estimates for 1964-1975 were derived from data supplied by John James, NIH Division of Research Grants; 1976-1984 data were estimated by the NRC Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel; 1985-1990 were derived from the NSF Survey of Federal Support to Universities. d Financial data from the University of Washington and Mayo Medical School were included for the first time in 1983. SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1992.

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Implicit GNP NIH Clinical Research as a % of Total NIH Estimated Clinical R & D d Price Deflator b Research 1987 Dollars (1987 = 100) Obligationc Total Public Private 27.7 15.0 168,093 69,699 98,395 28.4 16.5 200,316 83,445 116,871 29.4 18.0 238,961 98,848 140,114 30.3 20.0 287,393 121,688 165,705 31.7 22.5 349,721 150,327 199,395 33.3 25.0 367,342 147,748 219,595 35.1 28.0 397,318 164,300 233,017 37 30.0 427,215 177,219 249,996 38.8 32.0 482,698 196,876 285,822 41.3 34.0 531,838 232,048 299,790 44.9 34.0 497,723 227,534 270,189 49.2 39.0 621,889 288,452 333,437 52.3 37.0 631,083 290,177 340,906 55.9 39.0 726,181 335,347 390,834 60.3 41.0 767,280 359,413 407,867 65.5 38.0 690,781 339,672 351,109 71.7 39.0 735,620 368,289 367,331 78.9 38.0 783,276 406,269 377,008 83.8 38.0 773,286 399,243 374,043 87.2 38.0 810,575 425,124 385,452 91 39.0 855,993 456,689 399,304 94.4 39.4 961,200 513,405 447,795 96.9 39.2 1,061,358 581,759 479,598 100.0 38.7 1,117,620 598,616 519,004 103.9 39.6 1,203,873 629,855 574,019 108.4 39.9 1,337,651 733,669 603,982 112.9 40.1 1,515,779 758,385 757,394 117.0 n/a n/a n/a n/a

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APPENDIX TABLE F-24 Average Clinical R and D Expenditures and Professional Service Income per U.S. Medical School, by Type of Institutional Control, 1966-90 (1987 $ thousands)   Clinical R and Expenditures   Average per School Number of Schools Reporting a Fiscal Year Total Public Private Total Public Private 1966 2,685 2,103 3,336 89 47 42 1967 2,994 2,296 3,854 96 53 43 1968 3,605 2,733 4,747 97 55 42 1969 4,037 2,841 5,631 91 52 39 1970 3,973 2,833 5,548 100 58 42 1971 4,188 2,954 5,952 102 60 42 1972 4,686 3,337 6,496 103 59 44 1973 5,163 3,867 6,972 103 60 43 1974 4,484 3,447 6,004 111 66 45 1975 5,603 4,305 7,578 111 67 44 1976 5,635 4,331 7,576 112 67 45 1977 6,260 4,791 8,496 116 70 46 1978 6,394 4,992 8,497 120 72 48 1979 5,709 4,653 7,315 121 73 48 1980 6,080 4,977 7,816 121 74 47 1981 6,527 5,565 8,021 120 73 47 1982 6,287 5,395 7,634 123 74 49 1983 b 6,590 5,745 7,866 123 74 49 1984 6,903 6,171 7,986 124 74 50 1985 7,569 6,845 8,611 127 75 52 1986 8,357 7,757 9,223 127 75 52 1987 8,800 8,089 9,793 127 74 53 1988 9,479 8,512 11,039 127 74 52 1989 10,616 9,914 11,615 126 74 52 1990 12,030 10,248 14,565 126 74 52 a From the Association of American Medical Colleges (1972-92, special tabulations generated annually from 1982-92). b Financial data from the University of Washington and Mayo Medical School were included for the first time in 1983. SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1992.

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Professional Service Income Sum of Average Clinical R&D plus Professional Service Average per School Number of Schools Reporting a Income per School Total Public Private Total Public Private Total Public Private 2,521 2,451 2,604 33 18 15 5,206 4,554 5,940 2,322 2,256 2,405 43 24 19 5,316 4,552 6,258 2,670 2,686 2,648 56 33 23 6,276 5,419 7,396 3,440 3,422 3,466 57 33 24 7,477 6,263 9,097 3,614 3,543 3,716 71 42 29 7,587 6,376 9,264 4,474 4,298 4,755 70 43 27 8,663 7,252 10,707 5,017 4,744 5,389 71 41 30 9,703 8,081 11,885 5,499 5,449 5,563 70 39 31 10,663 9,316 12,535 6,152 5,899 6,583 73 46 27 10,636 9,347 12,587 7,956 7,148 9,250 78 48 30 13,559 11,453 16,828 9,330 8,371 10,740 84 50 34 14,964 12,702 18,315 11,129 8,745 14,807 89 54 35 17,389 13,535 23,303 11,002 8,772 14,376 93 56 37 17,396 13,764 22,874 11,975 9,672 15,621 93 57 36 17,684 14,325 22,935 12,790 10,148 17,192 96 60 36 18,869 15,125 25,008 13,008 10,229 17,540 100 62 38 19,535 15,795 25,562 14,801 11,500 19,918 102 62 40 21,088 16,895 27,552 17,096 13,402 23,043 107 66 41 23,686 19,147 30,909 18,496 14,465 24,985 107 66 41 25,399 20,637 32,971 21,269 15,649 29,700 110 66 44 28,838 22,494 38,311 21,820 17,580 28,525 111 68 43 30,177 25,337 37,748 24,289 18,732 32,687 113 68 45 33,089 26,821 42,479 26,886 21,490 35,039 113 68 45 36,365 30,002 46,078 39,038 30,768 52,115 111 68 43 49,654 40,683 63,730 43,877 35,611 56,839 113 69 44 55,907 45,859 71,404

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APPENDIX TABLE F-25 First Time R01 Applicants by Degree and Prior Research Training Experience   Total Applicants FY of First Application M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.-Ph.D.s Others 1964 1,087 1,453 103 442 1965 1,035 1,686 107 204 1966 1,081 1,613 81 244 1967 987 1,530 113 216 1968 826 1,582 96 198 1969 691 1,595 120 158 1970 600 1,766 83 145 1971 569 1,707 98 154 1972 654 1,820 111 139 1973 675 1,897 148 146 1974 697 2,005 123 137 1975 634 1,908 138 136 1976 845 2,288 167 168 1977 896 2,509 142 200 1978 907 2,403 146 168 1979 855 2,556 133 168 1980 906 2,501 133 194 1981 796 2,245 127 312 1982 682 2,168 64 177 1983 699 1,999 64 228 1984 700 2,070 114 158 1985 727 2,123 144 120 1986 669 2,175 157 131 1987 620 1,532 108 115 1988 696 1,913 139 105 1989 711 2,019 184 87 SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1991.

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Applicants with Research Training Percent With Research Training M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.-Ph.D.s Others M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.-Ph.D.s Others 386 458 35 103 35.51 31.52 33.98 23.30 409 600 54 36 39.52 35.59 50.47 17.65 498 640 45 38 46.07 39.68 55.56 15.57 446 651 54 28 45.19 42.55 47.79 12.96 412 733 48 25 49.88 46.33 50.00 12.63 373 738 67 20 53.98 46.27 55.83 12.66 351 928 47 23 58.50 52.55 56.63 15.86 356 893 64 23 62.57 52.31 65.31 14.94 398 945 66 17 60.86 51.92 59.46 12.23 399 1,031 91 24 59.11 54.35 61.49 16.44 421 1,127 69 10 60.40 56.21 56. 10 7.30 386 1,078 91 18 60.88 56.50 65.94 13.24 488 1,288 104 23 57.75 56.29 62.28 13.69 556 1,449 82 19 62.05 57.75 57.75 9.50 536 1,395 95 36 59.10 58.05 65.07 21.43 509 1,402 89 42 59.53 54.85 66.92 25.00 550 1,391 93 31 60.71 55.62 69.92 15.98 431 1,288 77 107 54.15 57.37 60.63 34.29 418 1,270 43 48 61.29 58.58 67.19 27.12 394 1,152 40 74 56.37 57.63 62.50 32.46 396 1,196 76 36 56.57 57.78 66.67 22.78 385 1,226 94 21 52.96 57.75 65.28 17.50 335 1,205 93 22 50.07 55.40 59.24 16.79 308 800 72 21 49.68 52.22 66.67 18.26 311 930 79 19 44.68 48.61 56.83 18.10 298 954 107 16 41.91 47.25 58.15 18.39

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APPENDIX TABLE F-26 First Time Grant * Recipients Degree and Prior Research Training Experience   Total Recipients FY of First Application M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.-Ph.D.s Others 1963 100 100 10 1,500 1964 652 867 75 137 1965 582 688 74 85 1966 616 660 58 82 1967 542 728 61 74 1968 363 527 59 40 1969 376 625 70 32 1970 266 483 46 22 1971 310 581 64 12 1972 432 803 85 23 1973 314 601 63 19 1974 460 1,087 97 17 1975 444 1,181 121 28 1976 406 917 93 27 1977 419 918 80 24 1978 481 1,247 109 23 1979 556 1,516 97 40 1980 469 1,169 82 34 1981 464 1,121 95 77 1982 409 1,109 53 53 1983 494 1,283 48 86 1984 546 1,264 90 94 1985 592 1,385 122 140 1986 521 1,467 131 109 1987 577 1,388 110 79 1988 561 1,453 128 88 1989 512 1,251 146 94 * K,R,U,M,P Awards SOURCE: National Institutes of Health, special tabulations, 1991.

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Recipients with Research Training Percent With Research Training M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.-Ph.D.s Others M.D.s Ph.D.s M.D.-Ph.D.s Others 35 38 3 586 35.00 38.00 30.00 39.07 265 345 31 37 40.64 39.79 41.33 27.01 279 321 33 21 47.94 46.66 44.59 24.71 328 328 29 18 53.25 49.70 50.00 21.95 296 379 40 17 54.61 52.06 65.57 22.97 224 321 32 9 61.71 60.91 54.24 22.50 258 394 40 10 68.62 63.04 57.14 31.25 188 337 30 6 70.68 69.77 65.22 27.27 215 406 47 4 69.35 69.88 73.44 33.33 303 552 55 5 70.14 68.74 64.71 21.74 186 406 45 2 59.24 67.55 71.43 10.53 294 725 62 2 63.91 66.70 63.92 11.76 294 835 82 4 66.22 70.70 67.77 14.29 251 629 60 3 61.82 68.59 64.52 11.11 279 647 50 2 66.59 70.48 62.50 8.33 332 852 63 4 69.02 68.32 57.80 17.39 401 1,037 72 12 72.12 68.40 74.23 30.00 336 801 64 9 71.64 68.52 78.05 26.47 317 765 65 48 68.32 68.24 68.42 62.34 287 804 36 21 70.17 72.50 67.92 39.62 303 891 31 27 61.34 69.45 64.58 31.40 343 854 67 22 62.82 67.56 74.44 23.40 363 922 83 47 61.32 66.57 68.03 33.57 289 892 82 27 55.47 60.80 62.60 24.77 317 842 79 11 54.94 60.66 71.82 13.92 322 862 82 10 57.40 59.33 64.06 11.36 269 689 99 13 52.54 55.08 67.81 13.83

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