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APPENDIX TABLE A4. M.D. Graduates of U.S. Medical Schools, by Type of Institutional Control, 1961-1987 M.D. Graduates 11 Fiscal Year Number of Medical Schools 2/ _ Private Total Public Private 1961 6,994 n/a n/a 86 44 42 1962 7,168 n/a n/a 86 44 42 t 963 7,264 n/a n/a 87 44 43 1964 7,336 n/a rota 88 45 43 1965 7,409 n/a n/a 88 45 43 1966 7,574 n/a n/a 91 48 ~ 43 1967 7,743 n/a n/a 96 53 43 1968 7,973 n/a n/a 98 54 44 1969 8,059 rota Ma 100 56 44 1970 8,367 nla n/a 102 58 44 1971 9,005 4,891 4,114 107 62 45 1972 9,558 5,295 4,263 110 64 46 1973 10,396 5,884 4,512 113 66 47 1974 11,365 6,441 4,924 113 66 47 1975 12,716 7,175 5,541 113 66 47 1976 13,634 7,534 6,tO0 115 68 47 1977 13,614 7,698 5,916 119 72 47 1978 14,391 8,284 6,107 123 74 49 1979 14,966 8,852 6,114 125 74 51 1980 15,135 8,840 6,295 - 126 75 51 1981 15,673 9,243 6,430 126 75 51 1982 15,985 9,545 6,440 127 75 52 1983 15,801 9,411 6,390 127 75 52 1984 16,369 9,792 6,577 127 75 52 1985 16,321 9,862 6,459 127 75 52 1986 3/ 15,979 9,525 6,293 126 75 51 1987 4/ 15,818 9,755 6,224 126 74 52 It/ Azures for 1961 -70 were obtained from the American Medical Association (1960-88). Figures for 1971 -87 were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges (t 972-88, annual tabulations). The 1983 figure for private schools includes an estimate from Columbia University. 2/ From the Association of American Medical Colleges (1972-88, annual tabulations). 3/ Data for George Washington University graduates are missing. 4/ Data for East Tennessee Univers ty graduates are missing; 1987 figures are April, 1987 estimates. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 10

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~4 APPENDIX TABLE AS. Full-Time Budgeted Vacancies on U.S. Medical School FacultIes, by Type of Institutional Control, 1961~7 1/ All C'epartments Baslc Science Departments CUnkal Sdence Depar~nts F~cal Year Total ~Ik Prh~ate Total PubHc Private ToW P - llc Pr v' t961 784 rVa n/a 305 n/a nfa 515 nla n/a 1962 836 nla n/a 348 rVa rVa 488 n/a nfa 1963 826 nJa nJa 350 nla nla 476 rVa n/a 1964 915 nta nfa 401 n/a rVa 514 n/a n/a 1965 955 n/a rVa 376 n/a n/a 579 nla n~a t966 1,115 nla n/a 443 nta n/a 672 n/a n/a 1967 1,374 n/a n/a 520 n/a n/a 854 nJa nfa 1968 1,585 n/a n/a 570 n/a ~a 1,015 n/a n/a 1969 t,691 rVa n/a 579 n/a n/a 1,112 rVa n/a 1970 1,634 ~a ~a 541 ~a ~a 1,093 ~a ~a 1971 1,522 856 666 518 296 222 1,004 560 444 1972 1,757 1,111 646 611 328 183 1,246 783 463 1973 1,857 1,144 713 550 361 189 1,307 783 524 1974 2,079 1,339 740 601 388 213 1,478 g51 527 1975 2,250 1,505 745 6t 8 415 203 1,632 1,090 542 1976 2,446 1,588 858 664 467 197 1,782 1,121 661 1977 2,503 1,599 904 638 416 222 1,865 t,183 682 1978 2,697 1,782 915 697 484 213 2,000 1,298 702 1979 2,821 1,811 1,010 721 467 254 2,100 1,344 756 1980 3,055 1,971 1,084 .. 776 489 287 2,279 1,482 797 1981 2,887 1,978 909 656 425 231 2,231 1,553 678 1 g82 2,932 1,931 1,001 668 432 236 2,264 1,499 765 1983 2,941 1,857 1,084 671 419 252 2,270 1,438 832 1984 3,107 1,890 1,217 705 443 262 2,402 1,447 955 1985 3,373 2,161 1,212 801 531 270 2,572 1,630 942 1986 3,102 1,875 1,227 757 467 290 2,-~ 1,408 937 1987 3,301 1,974 1,327 785 521 264 2 510 1,447 1 063 , , 1/ F.FnQ~ for 1961 -70 were obb~ned from dhe P~nedcan Nh~dlod As~o~a~n (t 96C~88). ~ures for 1971 -87 ~e obb~ned hom ~ As~ocbdon of Arnedcan MedRat Cotleges (1972-88, ~d t~bulabons prepared annuaO The 1989 Report of ~e Comm*tee on B`omedkal and Beh~v)oral Researr~h PeJsonnel. Vohme 2 11

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NOTE TO APPENDIX TABLE A7 ESTIMATING CLINICAL RESEARCH EXPENDITURES An estimate of the amount of support for cilnical R and D in U.S. medical schools is needed in order to refine the model of demand for clinical faculty. Data on total R and C) expenditures in medical schools, the variable used in the demand models, are available from the AAMC. Data on clinical R and 1:) expenditures, however, are unavailable. An estimate of clinical R and D expenditures in medical schools has been derived using the proportion of total NIH obligations used to support clinical research. From 1969 to t 987, this proportion has increased by 56%. In the absence of any direct measurements, the percentages shown in the table offer the best available means of estimating clinical R and D expenditures In medical schools. There is, of course, a serious problem of defining clinical research which clouds any attempt to measure ts support. The NIH estimates were derived generally from its Central Scientific Classification System (CSCS) in which each research grant is classified according to its primary field or discipline. If that discipline fails within a group identified as clinical science, then the grant Is tabulated as such. All program project and center grants are identified as clinical by the NIH. The classification of any grant is admittedly subjective; estimates derived by this process are subject to considerable uncertainty. Other classification schemes in use at NIH would be likely to produce different estimates of clinical research from those derived from the CSCS system. But the latter have one advantage - - they were produced for a series of years under a constant definition. Thus, while the absolute levels may not be very precise, the change from year to year seems to have somewhat more validity. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 14

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APPENDIX TABLE A8. Professional Service Income in the U.S. Medical Schools, by Type of Institutional Control, 1962-87 ($ thousands) Fiscal Year Total Current Dollars 11 1972 Dollars 2/ Private Total Public Prorate 1962 15,500 7,453 8,047 21,986 1O,572 11,414 1983 16,680 8,624 8,056 23,296 12,045 11,251 1964 18,576 9,124 9,452 2S,552 12,550 13,001 1965 21,839 1 1 ,534 10,305 29,393 15,524 13,869 1966 25,203 1 3,369 11 ,834 32,816 17,408 15,409 1967 30~252 16,407 13,845 38,294 20,768 17,525 1968 47,406 28,096 19,310 57,392 34,015 23,378 1969 65,300 37,600 27,700 75,317 43,368 31,949 1970 90,057 52,232 37,825 98,531 57,147 41,384 1971 115,883 68,379 47,504 120,711 71,228 49,483 1972 138,197 75,466 62,731 138,197 75,466 62,731 1973 158,984 87,763 71,221 150,268 82,952 67,317 974 201,642 121,842 79,800 173,829 105,036 68,793 1975 305,331 168,798 136,533 240,040 132,703 107,337 1976 409,877 218,905 190,972 306,107 163,484 142,623 1977 553,664 263,965 289,69g 390,730 186,284 204,445 1978 616,971 296,219 320,752 405,768 194,817 21 O,952 1979 729,439 361,104 368,335 440,855 218,242 ,613 1980 880,335 436,567 443,768 493,406 244,685 248,721 1981 1,026,296 500,402 525,894 525,928 256,432 269,496 1982 1,26S,146 597,484 667,662 611,536 288,807 322,729 1983 3/ 1,59S,165 771,330 823,835 739,770 357,710 382,060 1984 1,800,g54 868,772 932,182 806,048 388,834 417,214 1985 2,208,590 974,988 1,233,602 956,928 422,438 534,490 1986 2,346,965 1,15B,401 1,188,564 990,113 488,694 501,419 1987 2,744,498 1,273,780 1,470,718 1,120,844 520,207 600,636 1/ This is income under control of the institution. An unknown amount is not under control of the institution and is not reported here. Figures were obtained from the Association of American Medical Colleges (1972-88, annual tabulations). Because AAMC data were incomplete, figures for 1969 were obtained from the American Medical Association (1960-88). Items may not sum to totals due to rounding. 2/ 1972 dollars were obtained by using the Implicit GNP Price Deflator (U.S. Bureau of the Census -- see Appendix Table A7). 3/ financial data from the University of Washir~ton and Mayo Medical School were included for the first time in 1983. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 15

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APPENDIX TABLE A19. Full-Time Budgeted Vacancies on U.S. Dental School Faculties, by Type of Institutional Control, 1969-871/ All Departments Basic Science Depts. Clinical Science Depts. Fiscal Year Total Public Private Total Public Private Total Public Private 1969 293 223 70 110 79 31 183 144 39 1970 201 101 100 60 23 37 141 78 63 1971 167 102 65 51 26 25 1 t 6 76 40 t 972 160 102 58 42 22 20 1 t 8 80 38 1973 268 189 79 79 51 28 189 138 51 1974 278 176 102 76 50 26 202 126 76 1975 224 147 77 45 33 t 2 179 1 14 6~ 1976 203 132 71 43 24 19 160 108 52 1977 t 79 1 16 63 37 24 t 3 142 92 50 1978 n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a nla n/a 1979 193 105 88 49 19 30 144 86 58 1980 191 113 78 39 19 20 152 94 58 198t 16t 94 67 34 20 t4 127 74 53 1982 174 87 87 37 25 12 137 62 75 t 983 192 120 72 49 36 13 143 84 59 1984 238 158 80 50 33 17 188 125 63 1985 211 150 61 62 50 t2 149 too 4c 1986 248 207 4t 73 61 12 175 146 29 1987 246 178 68 64 50 14 182 128 54 1/ From the American Dental Association (1968-88). The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 28

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APPENDIX TABLE A20. NIH Trainees and FellOWS In Clinical Dental ReSearCh, 1977086 1/ Total Trainees Fellows Fiscal Wear Total Predoc Posidoc Total Predoc Postdoc Total Predoc Postdoc 1977 112 12 100 61 9 52 51 3 48 t978 172 20 152 123 20 103 49 0 49 t979 176 28 148 128 28 100 48 0 48 1980 171 23 148 116 23 93 55 0 55 1981 170 to 152 107 18 89 63 0 63 1982 160 20 140 1t2 20 92 48 0 48 1983 160 21 139 121 21 too 39 0 39 1984 167 21 146 133 2t 112 34 0 34 1985 171 19 152 131 19 112 40 0 40 1986 137 19 118 117 19 98 20 0 20 , 1/Figures were obtained from me NIH Trainee and FQIIOW File, and represent persons receiving NRSA awards. The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 29

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APPENDIX TABLE A21. Number of New Faculty and Percentage of New Faculty Among Full-Time Faculty in U.S. Medical Schools, by Year and Degree Type, 1970~8 1/ New Faculty Percent New Faculty Year Total MD PhD Total MD PhD 1970 3017 1732 889 10.14 9.33 11.75 1971 3628 2183 998 1 1.29 10.96 1 1.99 1972 3731 2171 1085 t0.80 10.18 11.89 1973 4232 2680 1086 11.62 11.96 11.10 1974 4159 2514 1111 10.69 10.42 10.55 1975 4369 2791 1 1 10 10.55 10.88 9.84 1976 4338 2878 1041 9.91 10.54 8.74 1977 4620 3072 1128 10.11 10.68 9.09 1978 4435 2882 1139 9.30 9.55 8.78 1979 4651 3061 1213 9.34 9.68 8.90 1980 4428 2978 1 100 8.49 8.96 7.69 1981 - 3990 2730 972 7.36 7.87 6.56 1982 3892 2620 1014 7.04 7.36 6.69 1983 3716 ~ 2652 863 6.61 7.29 5.59 1984 3805 2581 1006 6.66 6.93 6.45 1985 3579 2428 903 6.15 6.36 5.71 1986 - 3694 2571 882 6.23 6.57 5.48 1987 3377 2344 785 5.58 5.85 4.78 1988 2891 2006 669 4.72 4.93 4.04 1/ Data derived from the AAMC Faculty Roster and pubilshed by NlH/OSPlJDPE/PPRB, 1989 flue 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 30

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APPENDIX TABLE A22. Number and Percentage of New Faculty in U.S. Medical Schools Who Have Had Postdoctoral Research Training, by Department and Degree Type, 1982 1988 1/ All Departments MD PhD MD Post- PhD Post- Year Total does Percent Total does Percent 1982 2,620 1,174 44.8 1,014 744 73.4 1983 2,652 1,171 44.2 863 633 73.3 1984 2,581 1,145 44.4 1,006 735 73.1 1985 2,428 1,037 42.7 903 652 72.2 i 986 2,571 1,047 40.7 882 655 74.3 1987 2,344 934 39.8 785 554 70.6 1988 2,006 740 36.9 669 459 68.6 - Average 41.9 72.2 Basic Science Departments 124 106 119 1t3 105 109 90 Year 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 Average MD PhD MD Post- PhD Post- Total does Percent Total does Percent 56.5 48.1 49.6 50.4 50.S 50.5 60.0 :52.2 70 51 59: 57 53 55 54 446 378 430 392 400 330 270 392 339 375 346 357 287 234 87.9 89.7 87.2 88.3 89.3 87.0 86.7 88.0 Clinical Science Departments MD PhD MD Post- PhD Post- Year Total does Percent Total does Percent 1982 2,486 1,100 44.2 514 331 64.4 1983 2,539 1,121 44.2 455 282 62.0 1984 2,455 1,084 44.2 543 346 63.7 1985 2,301 973 42.3 469 294 62.7 1986 2,454 990 40.3 457 283 61.9 1987 2,220 874 39.4 419 249 59.4 1988 1,906 683 35.8 370 214 57.8 Average 41.5 61.7 1/ Data derived from the AAMC Faculty Roster and pubilshed by NIWOSPU DP~PPRB, 1989 The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 31

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Year 1 g70 1 971 1972 1973 1974 MD PhD APPENDIX TABLE A23. Composition of Total Faculty and New Faculty in Basic Science Departments of U.S. Medical Schools, by Degree, 1970-881/ All Faculty New Faculty Only Total Number Percent Number Percent Total Number Percent Number Percent 7,757 8,293 8,810 9,199 9,661 2,657 2,740 2,835 2,866 2,927 34.3 33.0 32.2 31.1 30.3 4,592 5,009 5,408 5,732 6,134 59.2 60.4 61.4 62.3 63.5 637 684 742 838 822 188 173 191 199 210 29.5 25.3 25.7 23.7 25.5 409 466 504 578 574 64.2 68.1 67.9 69.0 6g.8 1975 10,088 2,965 29.4 6,506 64.5 / ~ / 169 21.8 561 72.2 1976 10,391 2,993 28.8 6,783 65.3 760 189 24.9 530 69.7 1977 10,634 2,997 28.2 7,030 66.1 747 186 24.9 520 69.6 t 978 t 0,923 3,006 27.5 7,310 66.9 791 192 24.3 "0 69.5 1979 1 1,229 3,002 26.7 7,598 67.7 734 172 23.4 522 71.1 1980 11,524 3,017 26.2 7,890 68.5 732 147 20.1 545 74.5 t 981 1 1 ,715 3,012 25.7 8,075 68.9 708 150 21.2 518 73.2 1982 11,801 2,978 25.2 8,208 69.6 607 147 24.2 432 71.2 1983 1 1 ,804 2,943 24.9 8,310 70.4 591 124 21 .0 446 75.5 1984 1 1 ,788 2,901 24.8 8,342 70.8 507 106 20.9 378 74.6 1985 11,874 2,889 24.3 8,457 71.2 566 1 19 21 .1 430 76.1 1986 1 1,925 2,885 24.2 8,526 71.5 528 1 13 21.4 392 74.2 1987 12,048 2,884 23.9 8,670 72.0 522 105 20.1 400 76.6 1988 12,009 2,866 23.9 8,663 72.1 462 109 23.6 330 71.4 1/ Data derived from the AAMC Faculty Roster and published by NIH/OSPIJDPEJPPRB, 1989 1 The 1g89 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 32

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APPENDIX TABLE A24. Composition of Total Faculty and New Faculty in Clinical Departments of U.S. Medical Schools, by Degree, 1970-88 1/ AJI Faculty New Faculty Only MD PhD Year 1 970 197t 1 972 t973 1 974 TotaJ Number Percent Number Percent 12.6 12.8 13.2 13.6 13.7 MD PhD . Total Number Percent Number Percent 1 ,84~ -- - - - ' - 2,126 2,664 2,659 3,159 20,406 1 5,542 ",064 1 6,804 23,808 18,113 25,217 19,156 27,135 20,806 76.2 76.2 76.1 76.0 76.7 2,562 2,829 3,151 3,421 3,71 5 1 ,345 1 ,550 1 ,979 1 ,963 2,459 72.9 72.9 74.3 73.8 77.8 302 347 410 425 440 16.4 16.3 15.4 16.0 13.9 1975 29,052 22,306 76.8 4,017 13.8 3,096 2,329 75.2 470 15.2 1976 31,032 23,919 77.1 4,317 13.9 3,347 2,579 77.1 494 14.8 1977 32,660 25,352 77.6 4,536 13.9 3,366 2,673 79.4 447 13.3 1978 34,409 26,758 77.8 4,827 14.0 3,626 2,871 79.2 508 14.0 1979 36,256 28,211 77.8 5,159 14.2 3,502 2,701 77.1 545 15.6 t 980 38,281 29,808 77.9 5,520 14.4 3,730 2,902 77.8 597 16.0 1981 40,126 31,278 77.9 5,831 14.5 3,562 2,815 79.0 529 14.9 1982 41,203 32,190 78.1 6,028 14.6 3,231 2,572 79.6 481 14.9 1983 42,179 32,995 78.2 6,213 14.7 3,186 2,486 78.0 514 t6.1 1984 43,205 33,974 78.6 61374 14.8 3,125 2,539 81.2 455 14.6 1985 44,344 34,927 78.8 6,581 14.8 3,152 2,455 77.9 543 17.2 1986 45,397 35,843 79.0 6,790 15.0 2,939 2,301 78.3 46g 16.0 1987 46,544 36,801 79.1 6,987 15.0 3,081 2,4# 79.6 457 14.8 198B 47,380 37,467 79.1 7,123 15.0 2,823 2,220 78.6 4t9 14.8 1/ Data dewed from me AAMC Faculty Roster and published by NI~OSPUDPEIPPR8, 1989 The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel, Volume 2 33

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APPENDIX TABLE A25. Number of Faculty Who Had Returned to Full-Time Positions at U.S. I\Jledical Schools After Leaving Academic Medicine in 1970 For One or More Years 1/ Retumed Total 2/ By MD (N=1850) (N=121 2) , PhD (N~350) 1972 1973 1 974 1975 1976 1977 1 978 1979 1980 1981 1 982 1983 1984 1 985 1 986 1987 1 988 9 10.6 11.4 12 12.8 12.8 12.9 12.4 12.3 11.9 11.8 11.5 11.5 11.S 1t.3 10.9 6 9.7 11.5 12.7 13.2 14.2 14.1 14.7 14.1 14 13.6 13.7 13.3 13.1 13.4 t3.2 13 7.1 10.9 13.7 13.1 15.1 16 16.6 16 15.7 15.4 14.9 14.3 14 14.3 13.4 13.1 11.7 1/ Data derived from the AAMC Faculty Roster and published by NlHfOSPL/DPE/PPRB, 1989 21 Total includes faculty drop outs who hem degrees over than MD or PhD The 1989 Report of the Committee on Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel 34