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PERSONNEL NEEDS AND TRAINING FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH THE 197 9 REPORT of the COMMITTEE ON A STUDY OF NATIONAL NEEDS FOR B ~ _ ONES COMMISS ION QN HUMAN RESOURCES NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL National Academy of Sciences Washington, D.C. 1980

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the Councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the Committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate teal ance . Thi s report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting or members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering r and the In s ~ i Lute of Med ic ine a The work on which this publ ication is based was performed pursuant to Contract Nos. Nol-oD-5-2l 09 and N01 - D-9-2112 with the National Institutes of Health of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare. Support for this~-project came from Evaluation Set-Aside Funds ~ Section 513 of the PE Act), Evaluation Proj eat No . NIHI 75-l . Available from: Commission on Human Resources Nat tonal Research Counc i 1 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W Washington, D. C. 20418 Printed in the United States of America IS

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NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES OFflCE OF THE PRESIDENT 210 I CON STlTUTIOt~4 AV N U E WASHINGTON, D. C. 2O^lB The Honorable Patricia Harris Secretary, Department of Health and Human Services Washington, D. C. 20201 My dear Madame Secretary: MAY 7, 1 980 I am pleased to present to the De par tment of Health and Human Services, for transmittal to the Congress, the 1979 Report of the Committee on a Study of National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel. This i s the fifth annual report in the continuing study undertaken by the National Research Council pursuant to Ti tie I of the National Research Act of 1974 (PL 93-348~. The work has been supported under Contracts N01-01)-~-2109 and NO1 - D-9-21 1 2 with the National Institutes of Health. The Act states (Section 473(a))that the purposes of the study are to: " ( 1 ~ establish (A) the Nati on' s overall need for biomedical and behavioral research personnel, (B) the subject areas in which such personnel are needed and the number of such personnel needed in each such area, and (C) the kinds and extent of training which should be provided such personnel; (2) assess (A) current training programs available for the training of biomedical and behav- ioral research personnel which are conducted under this Act at or through institutes under the National Institutes of Health and the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Ilealth Administration, arid ~ B) other current training prom grams avail able for the training of such personnel; (3) identify the kinds of research positions available to and held by ~ udividuals completing such pro- gr~ms; (4 ~ determine, to the extent feasible, whether the programs referred to in clause (B) of paragraph (2) would be adequate to meet the needs estate fished under paragraph ( 1 ~ if the programs referred to ill clause (A) of paragraph (2) were terminated; and (~) determine what modifications in the programs referred to In paragraph (2) are required to meet the needs established under paragraph ( 1~ . " As pointed out in the Preface, although the provisions of the current legislation (PL 95-622) do not require a report this year, the Comma ttee believes that the attached report, which describes its recent activities, current recommendations and studies, and future study directions, may be of interest to those who have been following its work.

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The Committee currently is engaged in a number of studies that Will pro- vide new data and information on issues central to the study mandate. The results of these studies will be included in future reportsO We hope that the present report will be helpful. We shall, of course, be pleased to discuss it and the Committee' s work with you and your staff O S - y yours g Philip Handler President Enclosure

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PREFACE Although the current provisions of the National Research Service Award Act (NRSA, Public Law 93-348) do not require a report for 1979 from the Commi thee on a Study of National Needs for Biomedi- cal and Behavioral Research Personnel, the Committee believes that issuance of a report this year is desirable for the purpose of maintaining continuity with regard both to its recommenda- tions, especially those concerning numbers of awards to be made during FYI980-1982, and its presentation of agency data on awards made under this program. In addition, the Committee this year presents its views on two major program developments: the new program of awards for short-term training, and the recently an- nounced plan to increase predoctoral and postdoctoral stipends next July. Finally, the Committee believes that a brief overview of its current studies and direction of research will be of interest and some value to those who have been following the work of the Committee. ~ Previous reports by the Committee have been issued in accor- dance with the provisions of the NRSA Act that estate} ished a continuing study of the issues concerning and assessments of national needs for research personnel in the biomedical and behavioral sciences. The authorizing legislation of 1974 was amended and broadened in 1976 and again in 1978 in connection with its renewal, to include the fields of nursing research and health services research (Appendix A). These amendments, among other changes, also modified many of the administrative and management aspects of the programs. In November 1978 the Congress renewed the NRSA legislation for 3 years through FYI981. AS a result of the earlier decision by the Department of Heal th, Education , and Welfare to support this study from f unds available to the National Institutes of Health (NIH), this extension of the legislation led to a re exam- ination by NIH of the working relationship and particularly the longer-term administrative arrangements between the Committee and NIH. Unfortunately, the negotiations over modified arrangements proposed by NIH have been protracted. In turn, this has delayed funding for a number of studies and other activities projected by the Committee. The present report, therefore, -shows less pro- gress than the Committee had planned and anticipated. Nonetheless, one of the important steps taken by the Com- mittee this year was a thorough reexamination of its near-term and long-term objectives, and a reordering of its priorities to meet these objectives. An intensive 2-day meeting on November 30 and December I, 197S, allowed Committee members and Panel chair- naen to review the issues the Committee already had addressed, its current stud ies and directions, and the ma jor questions that need further attention by the Committee. v

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Out of the approximately one dozen major topics presented and debated by the meeting's participants, four areas of inquiry were assigned the highest priority for investigation over the next 2 or 3 years: ~ ~ ~ extending knows edge about and improving capabil i ty for assessing research personnel needs in the f ield of clinical investigation; ~ 2 ~ assessing possible approaches for investigating the impact of training grants ~ and ~ oss of train- ing grants) on the quality of training and enrollments; ~ 3 ~ determining what factors affect the recruitment, productivity, and retention of scientists in the research labor force, and what role midcareer training has or can play; and ~ 4 ~ identifying priority fields for training. The Committee has begun studies to collect needled data in the f irst two of these priority areas. Summaries of these studies are presented in Chapter 2 of this report. The resul ts of some of these studies should be available in t ime for the Committee's next report. Because each of the identified priority areas is complex, the Committee recognizes that in some instances long-term studies will be required before satisfactory answers can be ob ta ined . The importance of developing a balanced program of studies, of establishing near-term and long-term priorities, and of being assured of having the time and the resources to accompl ish the required work is evident to those experienced with the complex i- ties of assessing personnel needs at the national level. The Committee is gratif fed that the Congress has acknowledged the importance of continuing the study of these issues as evidenced last year by the renewal of its mandate. Henry W. Riecken, Ph . Chairman James B . Wyngaarden, M a D . Vi ce Ch a i rman vi

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ACKNOWLE DGMENTS The Committee is pleased to recognize its indebtedness to the many individuals and organizations for the assistance that it has received this past year. We are particularly pleased, however, to acknowledge once again the continuing contributions of the chairmen and members of our own four advisory panels on Basic Biomedical Sciences, Behavioral Sciences, Clinical Sciences, and Health Services Research, and the ad hoc group on Nursing Research. The members of each of these advisory groups have g iven generously of their time to deliberate issues, analyze and interpret data and other relevant information, and provide advice and guidance to the Committee within.their special areas of expertise. The Committee also gratefully acknowledges the assist- ance afforded it and its staff by the officials and other senior staff of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), the Division of Nursing of the Health Resources Administration (HRA), and the National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR). We especially wish to thank Dr. Donald S. Fredrickson, Director, NIH, and the following members of his staff: Dr. Doris Merritt, Dr. William F. Raub, Or . Will lam H. Batchel or ~ Dr . Helen H. Gee, and Or . Solomon Schneyer . Dr . Ba tchelor served ably as the NT H Proj ect Of f icer for this study and, thus, as the Commi t tee and i ts staff ' s primary channel for obtaining information, data, and other assistance from the agency. Dr . Ruth L. Kirschstein, Director, and Dr. Charles A. Miller, National Institute of General Medical Sciences, NIH, al so were particularly helpful in providing information and assistance on matters pertaining to the agency's programs of support for predoctora~ training. Special thanks are due Dr. Harvey Wichman, Claremont Men's College, who currently is serving as an Intergovernmental Personnel Agreement Fellow in the Of f ice of the Director, NIH, for his ass istance in the development of the Behavioral Science Panel' s recent workshop, "Establishing Training Programs in Behavior and Heal th . " The Committee wishes to express publicly its apprecia- tion to Dr. Gerald L. Kit erman, Administrator, and Ms. Michele W. Harvey, ADAMBA, for their continued interest and assistance with this study. Or . Klerman has g iven generous- 1 y of his time and ~ in his professional role, has partici- pated in several of the Committee's workshops and symposia. Dr. Marie J. Bourgeois, Division of Nursing, HRA, and Dr. Jean Car~nody, NCHSR, have been most helpf ul in providing information and assistance in their special areas of respons ib i ~ i ty . The Committee also gratefully acknowledges ~ V11

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Other ind iv idual s deserv ing spec ial men t ion are Or Thomas E. Morgan, Association of American Medical Colleges ~ for his assistance on matters of importance to the Cl inical Sciences Panel, and Or . Harold Delaney, American Association of State Colleges and Universities f who, as consul tent to the Committee, has provided oversight and guidance for the Committee's study of issues concerning minorities in the bio- medical and behavioral sciences. Within the Commission on Human Resources, the Committee expresses its appreciation to Dr. Harrison Shull, Chairman, and Dr. William C. Kelly, Executive Director, who have provided helpful counsel and needed support throughout the study. Thanks are also extended to Mrs. Shirley A. Davis and Mr. Daniel T. McHugh, Office of the Executive Director, for assistance this year with a number of particularly complex administrat ive problems . The Committee is pleased to recognize the capable work and many contributions made by all the members of its staff under the overall direction of Dr. Herbert B. Pah1, Staff Director . Spec i f ical ly, thanks are accorded to the sen for professional staff, Drs. Allen M. Singer, Pamela C. Ebert-Flattau, MrO Porter E. Coggeshall ~ and Mr. Robert G. Snyder, and to Or . Samuel S; Herman, consul tent, whose spe- cific areas of responsibility are identified at the end of this report. Special note is also made of the extraordinary administrative load carried this year by the Staf f Director and Mrs. Kay C. Harris, Administrative Associate, in connec- tion with the renegotiation with NIH of the further support for the Committee's work. Finally, the Committee is pleased to thank the follow- ing support staff: J. Richard Albert, Prudence W0 Brown, Jesse Gary, Lori H. Thurgood, and Ingrid A. Wharton for excellent technical assistance; and Imani R. Ansari, Marie Ao Cal ark, Jacquelyn C. Johnson, and Janie B. Marshal] for outstanding secre tar ial ass istance and other support services that frequently involved short deadl ines . The Committee expresses its warmest thanks to the above and all other persons and organizations who have contributed to i t s work . . . vet l]

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COMMITTEE ON A STUDY OF NATIONAL NEEDS FOR B IOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL Chairman: *Henry W. RIECKEN, Ph . D . Professor of Behavioral Sciences University of Penny vania Vice Chairman: *James B . WY~GAARDEN, M. D. Chairman, Department of Medicine Duke University Medical Center Barry M. BLOOM, Ph.D. President, Central Research Pfizer, Inc. Groton, Connecticut Robert M. BOCK, PhoDo Dean of the Graduate School University of Wisconsin John J. CONGER, Ph.D. Professor of Clinical Psychology University of Colorado Medical Center Helen Homans GILBERT Dover, Massachusetts *C1if ford GROBSTEIN, Ph.D. Professor of Biological Sciences and Pubs ic Policy University of Cal ifornia at San Diego W. Lee HANSEN, Ph.D. Professor of Economics University of Wisconsin *Peter Barton MUTT, LL . M. Covington & Burling Washington, D.C. Lyle V. JONES, Ph.D. Director, L. L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill *Robert S. MORISON, M.D. Professor Emeritus Richard J. Schwartz Prof essor of Science and Society Program on Science, Technology and Society Cornell University Arno G. MOTULSKY, M.D. Professor of Medicine and Genetics Director, Center for Inherited Diseases University of Washington Helen M. RANNEY, M.D. Professor and Chairperson Department of Medicine University of California at San Diego Robert J. GLASER, M.D. (Past Chairman and Consultant) President The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation *Members o f the Executive Committee 1X

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