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APPENDIX A PAGE TABLE Al Biomedical Sc fence Baccalaureate Degrees and Underg raduate Enrollment 137 A2 Determinants of Academic Employment for Biomedical Science Ph.D. 's 138 A3 U. S. Population Estimates of 20-24 Year-Olds; First-Year Graduate Enrollment in the Biomedical Sciences; and Number of Biomedical Science Ph.D.'s Awarded - 139 A4 National Expenditures for Health-Related R and D ($ billions) 140 AS Determinants of Academic Employment for Behavioral Science Ph.D. 's 141 A6 Medical School Full-Time Faculty, Budgeted Full-Time Faculty Vacancies, and Student Enrollment s, 19 61-80 142 A7 Medical School R and ~ Expenditures and Professional Fee Income, 1960-79 ($ thousands 143 AS Estimated Clinical R and D Expenditures in Medical Schools 144 A9 Prof essional Lifetime Net Loss of Undertaking 2 Years of Post-M.D. Research Training 145 A10 Employment Field of 1972-78 Behavioral Science Pb.D. 's in 1979 by Field of Training 146 All Biomedical Science Ph.D. 's by Racial/Ethnic Group and FY 1974-80: U. S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders 147 A12 Sources of Support During Graduate Study of FY 1974-80 Biomedical Science Ph.D. 's by Racial Ethnic Group: U. S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders 148 A13 Percentage of FY 1974-80 Biomedical Sc fence Ph.D. 's Planning Postdoctoral Study by Racial/ Ethnic Group: U. S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders 149 135

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APPENDIX ~ (cont. ~ PAGE TABLE A14 Behavioral Science Ph.D. 's by Racial/ Ethnic Group and FY 1974-80: U. S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders 149 A15 Percentage of FY 1974-80 Behavioral Science Ph.D. 's Planning Postdoctoral Study by Racial/ Ethnic Group: U. S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders 150 A16 Median Age of FY 1974-80 Ph.D.'s in the Biomedical and Bebavioral Sciences by Racial/ Ethnic Group: U. S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders 150 A17 Time Lapse from B.A. to Ph.D. of FY 1974-80 Ph.~. 's in the Biomedical and Bebavioral Sciences by Racial/Ethnic Group: U.S. Citizens and Permanent Vi sa Holders 150 136

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TABLE Al Biomedical Science Baccalaureate Degrees and Undergraduate Enrollment B.A. Degrees (excluding first professional) . Total Undergraduate Degree~redit Enrollment (thousands) . . _ Total Biomed. Ratio of Biomed. lncl. First Excl. First FiscalYear B.A.'s Sci.a Sci. toTotalB.A.'s Professionalb ProfessionalC . _ 1960 3,402 3,334 1961 365,337 15,588 0.0427 3,610 3,538 1962 382,822 16,424 0.0429 3,891 3,813 1963 410,421 18,704 0.0456 4,207 4,123 1964 460,467 22,207 0.0482 4,529 4,438 1965 492,984 24,612 0.0499 4,342 4,255 1966 524,117 26,336 0.0502 4,829 4,732 1967 562,369 28,157 0.0501 5,161 5,058 1968 636,863 31,221 0.0490 5,557 5,437 1969 734,002 34,816 0.0474 6,043 5,909 1970 798,070 36,868 0.0462 6,528 6,376 1971 846,110 40,000 0.0473 6,889 6,719 1972 894,110 42,000 0.0470 7,104 6,913 1973 930,272 45,000 0.0484 7,199 6,998 1974 954,376 47,434 0.0497 7,395 7,187 1975 931,663 50,493 0.0542 7,833 7,6 10 1976 934,443 52,642 0.0563 8,468 8,234 1977 928,~28 51,783 0.0558 8,559 8,312 1978 930,201 49,701 0.0534 8,722 8,471 1979 931,340 47,717 0.0512 8,709 8,452 aFigures for 1960-70 and 1974-79 were from U.S. Department of Education (1948-81). Those for 1971-73 were estimated by CHR to remove the distortion in the series produced by a change in the survey taxonomy in 1971. These figures do not include health professions. bFigures for 1960-64 were from U.S. Department of Education (1961-79). Those for 1969-76 were from U.S. Department of Education (1973-77). Those for 1977-79 were from U.S. Department of Education (1974-80). Figures for 1965~8 were estimated. CFigures for 1960~7 were estimated at 98 percent of the previous column. Those for 1968-79 were obtained by subtracting first professional enrollment from the previous column. 1968-77 first professional emollment data were obtained from U.S. Department of Education (1959-79), 1978-79 data from U.S. Department of Education (197~80). 137

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TABLE A2 Determinants of Academic Employment for Biomedical Science Ph.D.'s Ratio of Estimated Biomed. Sci. Life Science Biomed. Sci Academically RandD Enrollments Academically Employed Expenditures in Total Biomed. Employed E~.D.'s Colleges and Sci. and Medical Ph.D.'sd Relative to Universitiese Grad. and Estimated Biomed. and (excl. Total Biomed. (1972 $, Fiscal Undergrad. Biomed.Sci. Sci. Dental postdocs.) Enrollment thousands) Year (S) Undagrad.a Graduateb SchoolsC (F) (F/S) (LSRD) 1960 197,419 143,037 10,717 43,665 8,i94 0.0415 504,012 1961 217,31 1 161,236 12,207 43,868 8,667 0.0399 590,141 1962 241,946 183,890 13,465 44,591 9,140 0.0378 687,295 1963 265,787 205,839 14,881 45,067 10,220 0.0385 809,240 1964 286,169 223,002 17,475 45,692 11,300 0.0395 937,543 1965 279,693 213,042 20,347 46,304 12,085 0.0432 1,034,577 1966 302,264 231,977 23,432 46,855 12,870 0.0426 1,1359854 1967 312,108 239,917 24,347 47,844 14,496 0.0464 1,204,881 1968 328,160 251,170 27,497 49,493 16,122 0.0491 1,255,48S 1969 359,086 279,349 28,496 51,241 17,652 0.0492 1,274,692 1970 384,027 299,507 30,843 53,677 19,181 0.0499 1,306,618 1971 414,661 325,018 32,603 57,040 21,134 0.0510 1,323,698 1972 438,745 343,587 34,203 60,955 23,087 0.0526 1,352,601 1973 480,078 379,268 34,888 65,922 24,940 0.0519 1,44S,536 1974 S11,247 404,881 36,111 70,255 27,145 0.0531 1,406,427 1975 S37,073 424,539 38,314 74,220 28,563 0.0532 1,493,979 1976 556,279 439,946 39,322 77,011 29,566 0.0531 1,569,167 1977 543,412 425,863 39,260 78,289 30,568 0.0563 1,599,585 1978 N/A N/A 40,500 81,460 32,274 N/A 1,667,186 1979 N/A N/A 41,739 84,933 33,980 N/A N/A aEstimated by the formula Ui = (Ai+2/Bi+2)q, where Ui = biomedical undergraduate enrollment in year i; Ai+2 = bio- medical baccalaureate degrees awarded in-year i+2; Bi+2 = total baccalaureate degrees awarded in year i+2; Ci = total undergraduate degree-credit enrollment in year i (excluding first professionals). See Appendix Table At for supporting data. bFigures for 1960-77 were from U.S. Department of Education (1959-79) except the one for 1966, which was estimated by CHR. The figure for 1979 was from U.S. Department of Education (1961-79); it represents the "biological science" category defined by the Department of Education, which is a slightly different set of fields from the Committee's defini- tion. The figure for 1978 was interpolated. CMedical school enrollment figures were from American Medical Association (1960-80). Dental school enrollment figures were from American Dental Association (1971-79a). dFigures for 1962-70 were estimated by CHR. Figures for 1972-79 were from NRC (1973-80), except those for 1976 and 1978, which were interpolated. Foreign nationals who received doctorates from U.S. institutions are included. eFigures for even years from 1964-70 and for 1972-78 were from NSF (1975-79). Those for other years were estimated by CHR. The Implicit GNP Price Deflator (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978) was used to obtain 1972 $ amounts. See Appendix Table A7. 138

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TABLE AS U.S. Population Estimates of 20~24 Year-Olds; First-Year Graduate Enrollment in me Biomedical Sciences; and Number of Biomedical Science Ph.D.'s Awarded Population Estimates First-Yr.Graduate Biomed. Of 20~24 Year-Oldsa Enrollment in Sci. Fiscal Year (thousands) Biomed. Sci.b ~.D.'sC 1960 1 1,1 16 5,370 1,096 1961 11,408 6,025 1,136 1962 1 1,889 6,642 1,272 1963 12,620 7,13? 1341 1964 13,152 8,542 l SS2 1965 13,679 10,430 1,7S3 1966 14,063 12,034 1,961 1967 15,197 12,511 2,181 1968 15,748 13,301 2 54S 1969 16,484 13,343 2 8S4 1970 17,184 14,83S 3,171 1971 18,089 15,84S 3,482 1972 18,033 16,722 3 454 1973 18,345 17,511 3 S18 1974 18,740 17,538 3,415 1975 19,242 18,876 3,516 1976 19,630 18,7S6 3,S76 1977 20,007 18,073 3 462 1978 20,461 17,780 3 S12 1979 20,726 17,487 3,636 aFrom U.S. Bureau of the Census (1965-80). bFigures for 196~77 were from U.S. Department of Education (1959~79). The figure for 1979 was from U.S. Department of Education (1961-79); it represents the "biological science" category defined by the Department of Education, which is a slightly different set of fields from the Committee's definition. The figure for 1978 was interpolated. Foreign nationals who received doctorates from U.S. institutions are included CFrom National Research Council (1958-80). I39

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TABLE A4 National Expenditures for Health-Related R and D ($ billions) . . Actual Dollarsa . . . Constant 1972 Dollarsb PAvate Ptivate Year Total Federal Industry Other Total Federal Industry Other . 1952 0.197 0.103 0.052 0.042 1953 0.214 0.107 0.058 0.049 1954 0.237 0.119 0.061 0.057 1955 0.261 0.139 0.062 0.060 1956 0.312 0.162 0.079 0.071 1957 0.440 0.229 0.126 0.085 1958 0.543 0.279 0.170 0.094 1959 0.648 0.351 0.190 0.107 960 0.900 0.448 0.253 0.199 1961 1.096 0.574 0.312 0.210 1.582 0.828 0.450 0.303 1962 1.337 0.782 0.336 0.219 1.896 1.109 0.477 0.311 1963 1.545 0.919 0.375 0.251 2.158 1.284 0.524 0.351 1964 1.710 1.049 0.400 0.261 2.352 1.443 0.550 0.359 1965 1.903 1.174 0.450 0.279 2.561 1.580 0.606 0.376 1966 2.124 1.316 0.510 0.298 2.766 1.714 0.664 0.388 1967 2.359 1.459 0.580 0.320 2.986 1.847 0.734 0.40S 1968 2.576 1.582 0.661 0.333 3.119 1.915 0.800 0.403 1969 2.785 1.674 0.754 0.357 3.212 1.931 0.870 0.412 1970 2.846 1.667 0.795 0.384 3.114 1.824 0.870 0.420 1971 3.167 1.877 0.860 0.430 3.299 1.955 ~ 0.896 0.448 1972 3.527 2.147 0.925 0.455 3.527 2.147 0.925 0.455 1973 3.735 2.225 1.033 0.477 3.530 2.103 0.976 0.451 1974 4.431 2.754 1.171 0.506 3.820 2.374 1.009 0.436 1975 4.688 2.832 1.306 0.550 3.686 2.226 1.027 0.432 1976C,d 5.084 3.059 1.446 0.579 3.797 2.285 1.080 OA32 1977 5.594 3.396 1.587 0.611 3.959 2.403 1.123 0.432 1978d 6.249 3.811 1.i70 0.668 4.108 2.506 1.164 0.439 1979 7.093 4.321 2.055 0.717 4.286 2.611 1.242 0.433 aFigures for 1952~2 were supplied by the Office of Resource Analysis, NIH; those for 1963-79 were from NIH (196~81). Items may not sum to total due to rounding. bThe Implicit GNP PAce Deflator (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978) was used to obtain 1972 S amounts. See Appendix Table A7. CFigures for 1976 include Transition Quarter funds. dEstimated. 140

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TABLE AS Detenninants of Academic Employment for Behavioral Science Ph.D.'sa Estimated Ratio of Behav. Behav. Sc'. Enrollments Behavioral Academically Rand D Total Ratio of Academically Employed Expenditures in Behavioral Behavioral Employed ~.D.'s to Total Colleges and Gram and Estimated Estimated Total B.A.'s to Ph.D.'s (excl. Behavioral Universitiesg Fiscal Undergrad. Behavioral Behavioral Behavioral Total postdocs.)f Enrollment (1972 $, Year (S) Graduateb Undergrad.C B.A.'sd B.A.,se (F) (F/S) thousands) . . _ 1960 172,976 12,748 160,228 N/A N/A N/A N/A 34,336 1961 194,799 14,960 179,839 16,527 0.0452 N/A N/A 40,188 1962 22S,508 15,376 210,132 18,398 0.0481 5,339 0.0237 46,803 1963 257,638 16,606 241,032 20,862 0.0508 N/A N/A 55,108 1964 304,376 18,782 285,594 25,376 0.0551 8,143 0.0268 64,055 1965 316,576 20,949 295,627 28,820 0.0585 N/A N/A 70,526 1966 382,914 24,074 358,840 33,728 0.0644 9,783 0.0255 78,31 1 1967 431,901 25,057 406,844 39,072 0.0695 N/A N/A 97,996 1968 495,959 29,883 466,076 48,295 0.0758 12,915 0.0260 1 18,490 1969 575,776 34,003 541,773 59,040 0.0804 N/A N/A 113,303 1970 650,254 36,508 613,746 68,413 0.0857 16,175 0.0249 1 13,384 1971 706,924 40,356 666,568 77,629 0.0917 N/A N/A 120,703 1972 750,453 44,707 705,746 86,066 0.0963 18,602 0.0248 129,875 1973 743,830 48,216 695,614 92,289 0.0992 19,539 0.0263 127,956 1974 724,278 51,712 672,566 97,432 0.1021 22,324 0.0308 118,826 1975 723,480 S5,383 668,097 92,609 0.0994 23,497 0.0325 116,754 1976 730,903 59,056 671,847 87,446 0.0936 24,524 0.0336 106,679 1977 692,920 58,289 634,631 81,491 0.0878 25,550 0.0369 103,019 1978 N/A N/A N/A 75,899 0.0816 26,196 N/A 102,496 1979 N/A N/A N/A 71,109 0.07~4 26,842 N/A N/A aBehavioral sciences include sociology, anthropology, psychology (clinical and nonclinical), and speech and hearing sciences. bFrom U.S. Department of Education (1959-79). CEstimated by the formula Ui = (Ai+2/Bi+2)Ci, where Ui = behavioral science undergraduate enrollments in year 1; Ai+2 = behavioral sci- ence baccalaureate degrees awarded in year i+2; Bi+2 = total baccalaureate degrees awarded in year i+2; Ci = total undergraduate enroll- ments in year i (excluding first professionals). See Appendix Table At for supporting data. dFrom U.S. Department of Education (1948-81). eSee Appendix Table Al for total B.A. degrees. fFigures for 1962-70 were estimated by CHR. Figures for 1972-79 were from NRC (1973-80), except those for 1976 and 1978, which were interpolated. Foreign nationals who received doctorates from U.S. institutions are included. "Figures for even years from 1964-70 and for 1972-78 were from NSF (1975-79). Those for other years were estimated by CHR. The Implicit GNP PAce Deflator (U.S. Bureau of the Census, 1978) was used to obtain 1972 $ amounts. See Appendix Tame A7. 141

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TABLE A8 Estimated Clinical R and D Expenditures in Medical Schoolsa NIH Clinical Medical Schools Weighted Sum of Research as (1972 $, thousands) Weighted Sum of Weighted Sum of Clin. R and D Ex- a % of Total Estimated Clinical R and D Clinical R and D Medical Service penditures + Med. Fiscal Research Clinical + Professional Expenditures in Income in Service Income in Year Obligation b R and D Fee Income Last 3 Years Last 3 Years Last 3 Years . . .. . 1960 9.5 18,817 34,696 1961 10.0 24,172 42,697 1962 12.0 35,104 57,090 25,566 18,729 44,295 1963 13.5 49,855 73,152 36,059 21,449 57,508 1964 15.0 64,342 89,894 49,789 23,533 73,322 1965 16.5 76,149 105,543 63,672 25,949 89,621 1966 18.0 87,918 120,734 76,140 29,289 105,429 1967 20.0 106,388 144,677 89,593 33,329 122,922 1968 22.5 128,917 187,090 107,403 41,892 149,295 1969 25.0 141,094 216,416 126,329 57,489 183,81 8 1970 28.0 149,989 247,969 140,274 76,699 216,973 1971 30.0 150,306 270,297 147,845 97,818 245,663 1972 32.0 174,728 316,769 156,332 120,001 276,333 1973 34.0 192,177 342,089 172,985 138,496 311,481 1974 34.0 189,931 363,139 187,253 153,768 341,021 1975 39.0 236,391 474,621 202,108 183,640 385,748 1976 37.0 228,245 534,444 222,740 238,967 461,707 1977 39.0 259,448 570,842 238,082 290,506 528,588 1978 41.0 268,751 584,990 253,973 311,307 565,280 1979 38.0 252,338 588,290 262,322 319,956 582,278 aSee note to this table for estimation procedure and Appendix Table A7 for supporting data. bEstimates for 1969-75 were deAved from data supplied by John James, Division of Research Grants, NIH. Other years were estimated by CHR. NOTE TO TABLE A8: ESTIMATING CLINICAL RESEARCH EXPENDITURES An estimate of the amount of support for clinical R and D in U.S. medical schools is needed in order to refine our model of demand for clinical faculty. The source of most of the medical school data we have been using is the annual edition of JAMA devoted to medical education, but this source does not contain the required estimate. The best data we can obtain from JAMA are on total R and D expenditures in medical schools. This is the variable used in demand models in the 1977 report. The approach taken to derive an estimate of clinical R and D expenditures in medical schools is to apply a correction factor to total R and D expenditures. A correction factor which seems appropriate is the proportion of total NIH obliga- tions that goes to support clinical research. From 1969 to 1979, this proportion has increased by 44 percent as shown below. Clinical Research as Percent of NIH Obligations (NIH, 1975; NSF, 196~80) 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 25~o 38% 30~o 32~o 34% 34% 39% 37~o 39% 41% 38% l- In the absence of any direct measurements, the above percentages offer the best available means of estimating clinical R and D expenditures in medical schools. Accordingly, they have been used to produce the data shown in Table 2.3. There is of course a serious problem of defining clinical research which clouds any attempt to measure its support. Lee NIH estimates were derived generally from its Central Scientific Classification System (CSCS) in which each research grant is classified according to its primary field or discipline. If that discipline falls within a group identified as clinical science, then the grant is tabulated as such. All program project and center grants are identified as clinical by the NIH. The classification of any grant is admittedly subjective. Therefore estimates derived by this process are subject to con- siderable uncertainty. Other classification schemes in use at NIH would be likely to produce different estimates of clinical research from those derived from the CSCS system. But the latter have one advantage-they were produced for a series of years under a constant definition. Thus while the absolute levels may not be very precise, the change from year to year seems to have somewhat more validity. 144

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TABLE A9 Professional lifetime Net Loss of Undertaking 2 Years of Post-M.D. Research Trainings Career Setting Medical School Faculty - Specialty NIH Base Only b ~th SupplementC . . . Anesthesiology S241,000 $81,178 $95,330 Internal Medicine 155,922 60,569 60,580 ObstetAcs/Gynecology 185,779 73,287 45,706 Pediatrics 104,229 39,742 28,521 Psychiatry 34,301 2,282 (net gain) 25,135 (net gain) Radiology 168,567 74,344 67,129 Surgery 103,638 45,300 28,964 aAssumes training stipend of S16,000 per year (1979 dollars) and a 12% discount rate. bIncome from a fixed annual amount. CE:ligible to receive income from practice plan activity SOURCE: Scheffler (1981, p. 12). 145 .

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TABLE A12 Sources of Support During Graduate Study of 1974~0 Biomedical Science E,hD.'s by Racial/Ethnic Group: U.S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders Racial/Ethnic Group Non- Amencan His- Minor- minor- Other/ All Indian Black Asian panic ities ities Unlcnown . . Total 1974-80 Ph.D.'s 22,008 105 370 1,269 199 1,943 18,835 1,230 Number Reporting 21,748 10S 370 1,262 198 1,935 18,597 1,216 Source of Support Percentage of Each Group Receiving Support from Any of These Sources NSF Fellowship 4.5 2.9 2.7 1.4 3.5 2.0 4.8 4.1 NSF Traineeship 3.8 3.8 2.4 2.4 4.5 2.7 4.0 2.7 NIH Fellowship 7.8 7.6 9.5 4.8 8.1 6.1 8.0 6.8 NIH Traineeship 31.5 30.5 22.2 19.3 26.3 21.2 33.2 21.8 Natl. Defense Education Act Fellowship 3.5 4.8 3.0 0.9 2.0 1.6 3.9 1.6 Other Dept. Health, Education, Welfare 5.0 2.9 8.4 2.5 4.5 3.9 5.2 3.2 Atomic Energy Commission Fellowship 0.7 0.0 0.3 0.6 1.0 0.5 0.7 0.6 Natl. Aeronautics & Space Admin. 0.5 0.0 0.8 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.5 0.4 GI Bill 8.8 9.5 9.7 1.7 9.6 4.4 9.6 4.3 Other Federal Support 4.4 3.8 7.3 2.1 3.0 3.3 4.6 2.9 Woodrow Wilson Fellowship 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 Other U.S. National Fellowship 1.7 1.0 8.9 1.3 6.6 3.3 1.5 1.1 University Fellowship 16.2 9.5 17.3 17.8 21.7 17.7 16.3 12.6 Teaching Assistantship 45.2 43.8 36.8 45.6 43.4 43.6 46.2 33.1 Research Assistantship 37.9 38.1 23.2 56.3 30.8 46.4 37.7 28.0 Educational Funds of Industry 2.6 3.8 4.1 3.7 4.0 3.8 2.6 1.6 Other Institutional Funds 7.2 6.7 7.3 5.7 6.6 6.1 7.4 5.3 Own Eamings 33.4 38.1 31.6 21.1 34.3 25.4 34.9 23.4 Spouse's Earnings 30.7 37.1 27.0 22.1 31.3 24.8 32.0 19.7 Family Contribution 14.0 9.S 7.6 12.9 14.6 11.9 14.6 8.1 Natl. Direct Student Loan 6.4 11.4 10.5 4.3 9.1 6.4 6.6 4.2 Other Loans 8.7 12.4 10.8 4.9 11.1 7.1 9.1 5.4 Other Support 3.8 3.8 7.3 2.3 7.6 3.9 3.8 3.4 SOURCE: National Research Council (1958-80). ; 148

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TABLE A13 Percentage of 1974~0 Biomedical Science PnD.'s Planning Postdoctoral Study by Racial/Ethnic Group: U.S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders . . Racial/Ethnic Group 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Total (DO) 50.3 57.5 58.3 61.3 63.3 63.8 65.5 Minorities Subtotal (%) 57.7 58.2 58.9 60.8 54.8 S8.7 64.0 Amencan Indian (HO) 50.0 72.7 41.7 68.0 58.3 50.0 66.7 Black (NO) 18.6 36.5 41.4 33.3 35.5 33.3 36.7 Asian (%) 70.4 63.6 67.8 68.6- 62.4 64.9 70.4 Hispanic (ho) 66.6 59.4 42.9 48.1 47.1 61.8 65.5 Nonminonties (%) 50.8 58.0 S8.8 62.3 65.0 6S.3 66.8 Other/Unknown (%) 34.3 46.8 48.6 40.5 56.5 49.2 49.5 SOURCE: National Research Council (1958-80). See Appendix Table Al l for number of Ph.D.'s earned each year. TABLE A14 Behavioral Science PhD.'s by Racial/Ethnic Group and FY 197480: U.S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders . . . . _ . Racial/Ethnic Group 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 Total 3,399 3,651 3,945 3,949 3,892 3,937 Minorities Subtotal (N) 149 211 246 289 285 329 318 (%) 4.4 5.8 6.2 7.3 7.3 8.4 8.2 American Indian (N) 13 15 24 35 22 31 14 (Jo) 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.8 0.4 Black (N) 79 111 140 137 138 163 156 (%) 2.3 3.0 3.5 3.5 3.5 4.1 4.0 Asian (N) 34 40 40 56 50 64 75 (%) 1.0 1.1 1.0 1.4 1.3 1.6 1.9 Hispanic (N) 23 45 42 61 75 71 73 (%) 0~7 1.2 1.1 1.5 1.9 1.8 1.9 Nonminonties (N) 3,040 3,272 3,552. 3,509 3,393 3,402 3,399 (%) 89.5 89.6 90.1 88.9 87.2 86.4 87.5 Other/Unknown (N) 210 168 146 151 214 206 166 (A 6.2 4.6 3.7 3.8 5.5 5.2 4.3 . . SOURCE: National Research Council (1958-80). 149

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TABLE A15 Percentage of 1974~0 Behavioral Science ~.D.'s Planning Postdoctoral Study by Racial/Ethnic Group: U.S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders Racial/Ethnic Group 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 Tot;il (Jo) 11.0 11.3 13.0 14.2 16.0 14.7 16.2 Minonties Subtotal (Jo) 5.4 8.5 11.4 10.4 15.4 13.4- 14.2 American Indian (do) 0.0 6.7 8.3 8.6 9.1 16.1 7.1 Black (DO) 3.8 8.1 6.4 7.3 10.9 12.9 12.2 Asian (do) 8.8 7.5 15.0 12.5 18.0 17.2 17.3 Hispanic (DO) 8.7 11.1 26.2 16.4 24.0 9.9 16.4 Nonminorities (HO) 11.4 11.6 13.3 14.5 16.0 15.1 16.2 Other/Unknown (DO) 8.1 7.7 7.5 13.2 15.9 10.7 19.9 SOURCE: National Research Council (1958-80). See Appendix Table A14 for number of Ph.D.'s earned each year. TABLE A16 Median Age of 197480 Ph.D.'s In Me Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences by Racial/Ethnic Group: U.S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders ~ __- American Indian Black Asian Hispanic Nonminorities Median Age in Years at Doctorate Biomedical Sciences 29.71 33.22 30.54 30.60 29.21 Behavioral Sciences 32.19 31.68 31.98 31.13 30.41 Median Age in Years at Entrance to Graduate School Biomedical Sciences 22.55 24.00 23.24 23.27 22.38 Behavioral Sciences 22.29 23.13 22.64 23.34 22.53 Median Age in Years at Baccalaureate Biomedical Sciences 22.21 22.34 22.34 22.42 22.12 Behavioral Sciences 22.48 22.27 22.20 22.58 22.15 - SOURCE: National Research Council (1958-80). TABLE A17 Time Lapse from B.A. to Ph.D. of 1974~0 Ph.D.'s in the Biomedical and Behavioral Sciences by Racial/Ethnic Group: U.S. Citizens and Permanent Visa Holders Racial/Ethnic Group American Field of Ph.D. Indian Black Asian Hispanic Nonminorities Registered nme. Median Number of Years Enrolled from B.A. to Ph.D. Biomedical Sciences 5.38 6.14 6.01 5.83 5.66 Behavioral Sciences 5.70 6.05 6.79 5.96 5.90 Total Time Mediar: Number of Total Years from B.A. to Ph.D. Biomedical Sciences 6.75 9.96 7.85 7.19 6.79 Behavioral Sciences 8.07 8.02 9.44 7.83 7.65 SOURCE: National Research Council (1958-80). 150