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Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research THE 1985 REPORT ofthe Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C. 1985

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of the report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special comnetences and with regard for appropriate balance. , . This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences. the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The Institute of Medicine was chartered in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to enlist distinguished members of the appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. In this, the Institute acts under both the Academy's 1863 congressional charter responsibility to be an adviser to the federal government and its own initiative in identifying issues of medical care, research, and education. The work on which this publication is based was performed pursuant to Contract No. N01-OD-4-2102 with the National Institutes of Health of the Department of Health and Human Services. Support for this project came from Evaluation Set-Aside funds (Section 513 of the PHS Act), Evaluation Project No. NIH 75-1. Available from: Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel Institute of Medicine National Academy of Sciences 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., JR-640 Washington, D. C. 20418 (202) 334-3186 Publication No. IOM-85-06

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PREFACE This is the eighth report of the Committee on National Needs for Biomedical and Behavioral Research Personnel pursuant to the request contained in the National Research Service Awards Act of 1974 (P.L. 93-348 as amended). In that Act, Congress requested the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a continuing study of the nation's overall need for biomedical and behavioral research personnel, the subject areas in which such personnel are needed, and the kinds and extent of training that should be provided by the federal agencies authorized to provide National Research Service Awards--the National Institutes of Health (NIB), the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), and the Division of Nursing, Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA). The National Center for Health Services Research (NCHSR) was also authorized to provide National Research Service Awards in the Health Services Research Act of 1978 tP.L. 95-623). A major part of this continuing study has been the development of a substantial body of data covering more than 20 years that provides much of the information needed for our assessment of the market for biomedical and behavioral research personnel. This data base-- presented in the appendix--includes such items as enrollments, degrees, revenues, and expenditures in colleges, universities, medical and dental schools, and the labor force of Ph.D.s employed in the biomedical and behavioral fields. In this report we have added to this data base the latest available figures from the federal agencies and professional associations that collect them. Primarily these agencies are the National Institutes of Health, the National Science Foundation, the National Center for Education Statistics, the National Research Council, the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Medical Association, the American Dental Association, the American Nurses Association, and the National League for Nursing. In addition to our primary task of assessing national needs for biomedical and behavioral research personnel, this year we present the results of five special studies conducted under the auspices of this Committee. Two follow-up studies of former trainees have been conducted--the first one surveyed former participants in the Minority Access to Research Careers (MARC) Honors Undergraduate Training Program, and the second one collected data on former NIH/ADAMHA postdoctoral trainees and fellows. Both special studies, under the direction of Howard Garrison, were designed to find out what career paths the former trainees have chosen and what their accomplishments have been. A summary of findings from the MARC study is presented in Chapter 3 and complete reports on both studies will be published separately. A third special study deals with a detailed examination of dental education and the need for dental research personnel. The results are presented in Chapter 2. ~

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The fourth special study deals with employment in the biotechnology industry. Robert Barker, Provost at Cornell University and a member of this Committee, collaborated with the American Society for Microbiology to conduct a survey of biotechnology firms designed to collect data about their current employment of scientists and hiring plans for the next 18 months. This survey, which repeats a previous one conducted in 1983, is summarized in Chapter 3. Finally, Samuel Herman and Allen Singer have updated a study of the movement of basic biomedical scientists into clinical departments of medical schools that was reported upon in the committee's 1983 report. The revised and updated study will be published as a separate report under the auspices of this committee. On behalf of the Committee, I wish to express our appreciation to the many individuals and organizations that have contributed to the development of this report. I would like to thank in particular those individuals who participated in the committee's public meeting of May 10, 1984. A summary of that meeting is presented in Appendix F. Robert L. Hill, Ph.D. Chairman iv

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Many individuals contributed information, data, and other valuable assistance on various aspects of this report. We wish to ~ thank in particular the following individuals and their organizations for their contributions. National Institutes of Health Office of the Director: William Raub, Doris Merritt, Charles Sherman, who served as Project Officer, Helen Gee, George Bowden Division of Research Grants: Nicholas Moriarity, Charles Shea, Doris Wallace, Joseph Brackett National Institute of General Medical Sciences: Ruth Kirschstein, John Norvell, Elward Bynum National Institute of Dental Research: Harald Loe, Preston Littleton, Jack Brown, Thomas Valega Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Michele Applegate, Leonard Mitnick Health Resources and Services Administration Division of Nursing: Jo Eleanor Elliott, Doris Bloch, Adele wood, Thomas Phillips, Gretchen Osgood National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment John Marshall American Dental Association , Mario Santangelo, David DeMarais Association of American Dental Schools Eric Solomon American Association for Dental Research John Gray American Medical Association Norbert Budde, Mary Lou White, Gene Roback American Society for Microbiology Michael Goldberg, Robert Watkins, Gerald Shockman

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American Nurses' Association Pauline grimmer, Catherine Foster, James Galliher National League for Nursing l Sally Solomon Veterans Administration Paulette Cournoyer Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Marcia Sass Association for Health Services Research Alice Hersh, Betsy vieth National Academy of Sciences/Institute of Medicine The committee gratefully acknowledges the contributions to this report of Allen Singer, Staff Director and principal author, and the fine efforts of the other members of the committee's staff--Howard Garrison, Samuel Herman, Lori Thurgood, Prudence Brown, Kay Harris, and Dorothy Cooper. TOM staff members Sunny Yoder and Cindy Howe were the principal contributors to Chapters 5 and 6. The data processing staff of the Office of Scientific and Engineering Personnel, under the direction of George Boyce, provided excellent services to the committee. We thank programmers Rink van der Have, Maisie Compagnucci, and Beah Zander for their conscientious efforts. Frederick Robbins, President of the Institute of Medicine, and Charles Miller, its Executive Officer, are also thanked for their oversight of the committee's activities. V1

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COMMITTEE ON NATIONAL NEEDS FOR BIOMEDICAL AND BEHAVIORAL RESEARCH PERSONNEL Chairman: ROBERT L. HILL, Ph.D. Chairman, Department of Biochemistry Duke University Medical Center ROBERT BARKER, Ph.D. Provost Cornell University ROBERT M. BOCK, Ph.D. (Chairman, Basic Biomedical Sciences Panel) Dean, Graduate School University of Wisconsin-Madison DAVID R. CHALLONER, M.D. Vice President for Health Affairs University of Florida EMILIO Q. DADDARIO, LL.D. Attorney-at-Law Wilkes, Artis, Hedrick & Lane Washington, D.C. CHARLES D. FLAGLE, Ph.D. Professor and Head, Division of Operations Research Dept. of Health Services Admin. Johns Hopkins University ROBERT H. FURMAN, M.D. (Chairman, Clinical Sciences Panel) Consultant Eli Lilly & Company Indianapolis, IN W. LEE HANSEN, Ph.D. Professor of Economics University of Wisconsin-Madison HOWARD H. GARRISON, Ph.D. Project Director for Special Studies and Executive Secretary for Behavioral Sciences Panel SAMUEL S. HERMAN, D.D.S., Ph.D. Executive Secretary Clinical Sciences Panel and Ad Hoc Panel on Dental Research ADA K. JACOX, Ph.D. Director, Center for Research School of Nursing University of Maryland LYLE V. JONES, Ph.D. Director, The L. L. Thurstone Psychometric Laboratory Univ. of North CarolinaChapel Hill WILLIAM N. KELLEY, M.D. Professor and Chairman Department of Internal Medicine University of Michigan Medical School CHARLOTTE V. KUH, Ph.D. District Manager, Business Research American Telephone & Telegraph Company Basking Ridge, NJ BRENDAN A. MAHER, Ph.D. (Chairman, Behavioral Sciences Panel) Professor of Psychology Harvard University JERRY MINER, Ph.D. Professor of Economics Syracuse University GERALD T. PERKOFF, M.D. Curators Professor School of Medicine University of Missouri-Columbia STAFF ALLEN M. SINGER, Ph.D., Staff Director KAY C. HARRIS, B.S. Administrative Officer PRUDENCE W. BROWN B.A. LO RI THURGOOD, B.A. SUNNY YODER, B.A. CINDY HOWE, B.A. Research Associates DOROTHY G. COOPER, B.S. Secretary . V11

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BASIC BIOMEDICAL SCIENCES PANEL Chairman: ROBERT M. BOCK, Ph.D. Dean, Graduate School University of Wisconsin-Madison DAVID H. COHEN, Ph.D. Professor and Chairman Dept. of Neurobiology & Behavior State Univ. of N.Y., Stony Brook MAURICE S. FOX, Ph.D. Professor of Molecular Biology Department of Biology Massachusetts Institute of Technology ROBERT A. GOOD, M.D., Ph.D. Member and Head Cancer Research Program Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation FRANCIS J. HADDY, M.D., Ph.D. Chairman, Department of Physiology Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences MARY ELLEN JONES, Ph.D. Professor and Chair Dept. of Biochemistry and Nutrition University of North CarolinaChapel Hill KENNETH E. CLARK, Ph.D. President Center for Creative Leadership Greensboro, NC LUCY M. COHEN, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Anthropology Catholic University of America JACK ELINSON, Ph.D. Professor and Acting Head Division of Sociomedical Sciences Columbia University P. HERBERT LEIDERMAN, M.D. Professor, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences Stanford Univ. Medical Center GARDNER LINDZEY, Ph.D. Director, Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences Stanford, CA LEEV. LEAK,Ph.D. Research Professor Dept. of Anatomy Howard University H. GEORGE MANDEL, Ph.D. Professor and Chairman Department of Pharmacology George Washington University PETER S. NOCE, M.D., Ph.D. Laboratory Director SmithKline Clinical Laboratories, Inc. Woodland Hills, CA FRANK G. STANDAERT, M.D. Professor and Chairman Department of Pharmacology Georgetown University PAUL S. SYPHERD, Ph.D. Professor and Chairman Department of Microbiology and Molecular Genetics Univ. of CaliforniaIrvine BEHAVIORAL SCIENCES PANEL Chairman: BRENDAN A. MAHER, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Psychology and Social Relations Harvard University . vale ELEANOR E. MACCOBY, Ph.D., D.Sc. Professor, Department of Psychology Stanford University ROBERT McGINNIS, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Sociology Cornell University JEROME E. SINGER, Ph.D. Chairman, Medical Psychology Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences BONNIE J. SPRING, Ph.D. Professor, Department of Psychology Texas Tech University ROBERT STRAWS, Ph.D. Professor and Chairman Department of Behavioral Science University of Kentucky

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CLINICAL SCIENCES PANEL Chairman: ROBERT H. FURMAN, M.D. Consultant Eli Lilly & Company Indianapolis, IN W. GERALD AUSTEN, M.D. Professor of Surgery Harvard Medical School Chief, Surgical Services Massachusetts General Hospital RUBIN BRESSLER, M.D. Professor and Head Department of Internal Medicine University of Arizona THOMAS B. CLARKSON, D.V.M. Professor and Chairman Department of Comparative Medicine Wake Forest University ROGER DETELS, M.D. Dean, School of Public Health University of California Los Angeles PAUL GOLDHABER, D.D.S. Dean, Harvard School of Dental Medicine JULES HIRSCH, M.D. Professor and Senior Physician Laboratory of Human Behavior and Metabolism Rockefeller University D. WALTER COHEN, D.D.S. Professor, Dept. of Periodontics University of Pennsylvania LLOYD C. ELAM, M.D., L.H.D., LL.D. Professor, Department of Psychiatry Meharry Medical College WEBSTER JEE, Ph.D. Professor of Anatomy School of Medicine University of Utah MORRIS A. LIPTON, M.D., Ph.D. Director, Biological Sciences Research Center University of North CarolinaChapel Hill JOHN W. LITTLEFIELD, M.D. Professor of Pediatrics Children's Medical & Surgical Center The Johns Hopkins Hospital JOHN F. SHERMAN, Ph.D. Vice President Association of American Medical Colleges Washington, D.C. SCOTT N. SWISHER, M.D. Professor of Medicine Department of Medicine Michigan State University BABETTE B. WEKSLER, M.D. Professor of Medicine Cornell University Medical College DAVID PERRY, M.A. (Consultant to the Panel) Associate Dean for Planning & Operations St. Louis University Medical Center AD HOC PANEL ON DENTAL RESEARCH Chairman: PAUL GOLDHABER, D.D.S. Dean, Harvard School of Dental Medicine ROBERT W. MANN, Sc.D. Professor of Biomedical Engineering Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Massachusetts Institute of Technology JOHN J. SALLEY, D.D.S. Vice President Center for Innovative Technology Herndon, VA RAYMOND P. WHITE, D.D.S., Ph.D. Professor, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery University of North CarolinaChapel Hill ix

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