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Tndex

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Index A Academic proficiency of American children, 186 Activation models, vision research in, 9 Addiction, SO, 61 Affect, see Motivation Africa, demographic behavior in, 135 Agendas, 86-88, 242 Aggression, boys and, 71 AIDS, 62-63 Airline industry, see Regulation and deregulation Alcohol abuse, prevention of, S9-61 Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration (ADAMHA), 81, 228, 230, 232, 235, 249, 250, 256 Allocation, see Choice and allocation Alzheimer's disease, 19, 57 American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 231 American Statistical Association, 223 Amnesia, 16, 17, 19 Animals, 17-18, 56-57, 218, 246, 247; see also Primate research Antisocial and prosocial behavior, 68-69 Aphasia, 33-35 Approval voting, see Voting, approval Arbitration, 124 Archives and records corporate, 163, 226 federal government, 120, 247 local government, 226 ' Arms races, 156, 15~160 Artificial intelligence, 28, 34, 35; see also Expert systems Asia, demographic behavior in, 135 Asians, immigration to U.S., 139 Audition, see Hearing B Baboon societies, 132 Bargaining, 10~108, 124, 242 Behavior research, cost increases in, 45 Biobehavioral rhythms, SS-56 Birds, song learning of, 17 Blue Cross/Blue Shield, 226 Brain circuits, 17-19, 54-SS damage, 16- 17; see also Aphasia metabolism, 17-18, 54-SS see also Cognition; Motivation Bretton Woods system, breakdown of, lSO Buddhists, 143 275

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276 / Index C Cable television, see Regulation and deregulation Cardiovascular disorder, 64 Careers, criminal, 66-68, 241, 248 Careers, work data sources on, 118-121, 248 levels of satisfaction in, 73 mobility in, 112, 116-118 see also Employment; Jobs Categorical knowledge, cognitive development in, 21-24, 240 Catholic church, liberation theology, 144 Causal inference, 191-192, 245 Census, Bureau of the, 163, 223, 225 Census data, U.S., 218, 223 Central nervous system, effect on immunity, 64 Cheating, 107 Children academic proficiency of, 186 divorce effects on, 68, 142 emotional expression, S1-54 see also Aggression; Antisocial and prosocial behavior; Drug abuse; Family Chimpanzees aggression and, 132 language and, 32 Choice and allocation, 27, 85-125, 242-243, 246; see also Decision making Classified data, research uses and needs, 160, 163 Clustering, methodological model for, 190 Cognition, 19-31, 240, 248 Cognitive development, 2~21, 240 Cognitive illusion, 26 Cognitive science, artificial intelligence and, 34 Collective bargaining, 124 Collective choice, 86-91 College students, behavioral and social science majors, 206 Color perception, data-scaling research, 188 Combining evidence, statistical methods for, 196 Commerce, Department of, 236 Communication technology, cooperation and conflict research use of, 160 Comparative research designs, 176-178 Complex action, motor skills in, 30-31 Computer applications adaptive testing instruments for, 186 bargaining research and, 108 behavior, mind, and brain, 44, 240 data collection methods, 195-196, 198 decision making and, 27 language and, 36, 37, 240 networks and, 125, 221 reading and, 19, 42 regression models and, 184-185 simulations for testing, 19-20, 70 for social interaction testing, 70 statistical software packages for, 194-195, 224 for vision and hearing research, 8-9, 11-14, 16, 217, 240 Computerized tomography (CT), 34, 218 Computers costs in universities, 217 use in research, 216, 245; see also Computer applications Confidentiality federal information and, 223 research issues and, 224 Conflict, internationalization and, 155-161, 244 Continuous Work History Sample, Internal Revenue Service, 225 Contracts, 103-108 asymmetry of information, 104 bargaining and negotiation, 106-108, 242 employment, 110-113 principal-agent models for, 103-107 repeated interactions, theory of, 107 structure, 124 . . . . . Cooperation, ~nternat~onal~zat~on and, 158-160 Corporations, transnational, 151 Cowles Commission, 122 Crime, 65-69 Criminal careers, 66-68, 241, 248 Criminal justice system, 66-68, 74; see also Juries Current Population Survey, 225 Cyclicity, biological, 55 D Data access to, 222-225, 246, 247 on jobs and careers, 118-121, 248 resources, 218-226, 246, 247-248

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Index / 277 time-series, 164 see also Classified data; Demographic data bases; Missing data Data collection designs, 169-172, 248 graphic presentation and, l9S-196 methods, 165-199, 244-245 Deaf children, 35, 39 Death and disability, leading causes of, 58 Decision making experimentation, 122 heuristics, 27 individual, 25-27, 175 internationalization and, 157-158 by juries, 74-77 organizational behavior and, 86 statistical information use in, 26 Decision theory, normative, 25 Defense, Department of, 228, 236, 253 Delinquent behavior, 68 Democracy, 90 Demographic behavior institutions and cultures, 135, 243 interdisciplinary research centers, 234 Demographic data bases, 163 Developing countries division of labor in, 152 family planning programs in, 138 population change in, 13~138 reorganization of social arrangements in, 151-152 Dictionary o; Occupational Titles, 120 Diet, see Eating behavior Diplomatic activities, institution and culture Facial expression research and, 162 Divorce and separation, effects on women and children, 68, 142 Drug abuse, 59-61, 66 Drugs, crime and, 66 Dyslexia, 38, 41; see also Language Empathy, 69 Employers, behavior of, 124 Employment, 108-121 . , contracts, 110 - 111 data, 118-120, 129 histories, 111 long-term, 111-113 minimum wage, 111 sex segregation, 115 technological change, effects of, 116 see also Jobs, Unemployment Ethnographic research, 17~180, 248 Ethnographic study of modern societies, 178-179 Ethology, 56-57 European Fertility Project, 137 Event histories, models for, 185 Evidence, statistical methods for combining, 196 Evolution human societies, 130-134 language, 134-135 organizational, 93-95 technological, 133-134 Experimental designs, 170-176 Expert systems for medical diagnostics, 28-29 statistics for, 194-195 Expertise, concepts about, 27-30 Eye-blink response, associative learning in, 18 E Eating behavior, 56-58, 133-134, 241 Education, Department of, 228, 236, 253 Education, see College students; Graduate education; Undergraduate education Electoral systems, 89-91 Emission tomography, 34 Emotional expression, S1-54 Emotional perceptiveness, 53 Emotive circuitry in the brain, 54-55 F emotion and, S1-53, 241 universals, 53 Facial recognition, neural circuits and, 12 Family, nuclear, 140-143, 244; see also Children; Divorce and separation; Marriage Family planning programs in developing countries, 138 Family size in developing countries, 136 FBI Uniform Crime Reports, 66 Federal administration of behavioral and social sciences research, 235 Federal research coordination of biobehavior and health, 81 Federal statistics, access to, 225 Fellowships funding recommendations, 46, 80, 122, 161, 199, 207, 211, 245-246

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278 / Index motivation research, 80 predoctoral research, 209-211 Fertility in developed countries, 138-139 in developing countries, 136-138, 162 and lactation, 135-136 reduction, 135, 137 Finance, international, 150-151 Fire, human evolution and, 134 Food, see Eating behavior Foraging, 17, 57, 133-134 Ford Foundation research support, 160 Framing effects, decision making and, 27 Framing of questions, memory and, 175-176 Friendship pattems, 59 Funding, research agencies, 249, 251-260; see also specific agencies recommendations, 246; see also Recommendations G Game theory, 90, 106 Gender cultural value placed on, 136 discrimination, job setting and, 114-117 social construction of, 76-78 Gender differences, 132 Gender roles socialization, 115 stereotypes, 78 General Social Survey, 172, 175 Gorillas, language and, 32 Government budget deficits, 102 Graduate education, 207-210, 245-246 H Health and behavior, 58-64, 241, 248 stress and risky behavior and, 58-64 Health and Human Services, Department of, 232, 236, 253, 256 Health care, 64-65 Health care delivery systems, 64-65 Hearing, 8-11, 14-15, 240 Hearing aids, 14 Helping behavior, 69 Hispanics, immigration to U.S., 139 History comparative, 177-178 corporate historical records, 163-164 of employment, 110-113, 225 historical reconstruction, ethnographic methods for, 180-181 of labor force, 114-115, 119-120 of nation-states, 149-150, 157-158 of the nuclear family, 140-143 of organizational evolution, 93-95 of religion, 143-144 of science and technology, 144-147 of sharecrop contracts, 104 see also Event histories; Evolution; Human society Home bases, role in human society evolution, 133, 134 Housing and Urban Development, Department of, 236 Human body movement, 30-31 Human reproductive physiology, 132 Human sexual behavior, research needs, 62 Human society, development of, 13~133, 243 Human vocal anatomy, evolution of, 134 Ideological systems, comparative research design, 179-180 Illness, risk of, 63 Image augmentation, 12 Imagery, 23, 24 Imaging methods, SS Imaging technology, 34; see also Neuroimaging Immigrants illegal, 118 to the United States, 138 T . . immigration in developed countries, 138 employment, relation to, 117 Imprinting, 17 Income dynamics, see Panel Study of Income Dynamics Industrialization, family and, 141 Infants cognitive development in, 240 language and, 33, 134 social-emotional sensitivity, 51 Institute for Nutrition in Central America and Panama, 138 Institutional constraints, see Organizational structure

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Index / 279 Intelligence testing, 24 Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research, 204 Interdisciplinary research centers, 46, 233-235, 248 communications needs in, 213-214 funding recommendations, 46, 123-124, 233, 248 language, 36 project evaluation issues, 232 proposals, recommendations, 230 Internal resampling, statistical technique for, 192-193 Internal Revenue Service, 139, 163 Continuous Work History Sample, 225 International Centre for Diarrheal Disease Research, 138, 234 International conflict, 155-160 International division of labor, 152-153 International Education Act of 1966, 160 International labor productivity trends, 153-155 International politics, security dilemma, 155-160 International trade, 105 Internationalization conflict and, 158-160 cooperation, 158-160 decision making and, 157-158 research on, 149-155 Interrelated parameters, statistical technique, 194 Interviews cooperation and conflict research, 160 structured, 179 Intuition, 30 Ion conductance reduction, brain cells in, 18 J Jobs, 108-121, 248 data sources, 118-121 discrimination, 113-116, 243 histories, 119 immigrants, effect on, 117-118 loss, 64 mobility, 111, 117 tenure, 113 see also Employment Juries, 74-76 Justice, Department of, 236 L Labor contracts, 124 international competition, 117-118 markets, 108, 117, 242, 243 productivity, international trends in, 153-155 see also Employment Labor, Department of, 236, 253 Laboratories equipment recommendations, 79, 246 funding recommendations, 79, 123, 246 motivation research, 79 Language, 10-11, 31-43, 240 computer applications, 36, 37, 240 event-related brain potentials (ERPs), 34 evolution, 134-135, 243 learning, 17, 32-36 Latin America development of, 149-150 politically oriented religious movements, 143 Legal policy makers, 75 Linguistics, 15, 32-33 Longitudinal research, see Recommendations Longitudinal studies data bases, and, 219 designs, 173-175 funding recommendations, 80 M Magnetic resonance (NMR or MRI), 34, 218 Majority rule, 87 Male rituals, New Guinea, 75 Managerial accounting, 105 Market prices, neoclassical theory of, 96 Markets, economic, 95-103, 122 Markets, financial, 101-103, 124, 150-151, 242 Marriage, 72 Mating, language evolution and, 134 Meat eating, human development and, 133 Media, public policy and, 148 Medical diagnosis, expert systems for, 28 Memory, 15-19, 234, 240 framing of questions and, 175-176 survey design, 172 Mental disorders, 56, 64; see also Aphasia; Drug abuse; Motivation

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280 / Index Mergers, 105 Meta-analyses, statistical techniques for, 196-197 Methodology advances, summary of, 244-245 data collection, funding recommendations for, 197-199, 246 Middle East, politically oriented religious movements, 143 Migration, 117-118, 138-139, 248 Military role in research and development, 145 Minority groups employment, 117 science, participation in, 147 Missing data, statistical techniques for, 194, 245 Models/modeling activation, vision research in, 9 clustering, 190, 245 contract, principal-agent, 103-107 data representation, 181-190 for event histories, 185 fertility estimation, 137 game theory, 90-91 geometric and algebraic, 187-190 log-linear, for categorical variables, 183-184, 245 multiple-item measurement, 185-186, 245 network, 190, 245 nonhuman primate, 132 nonlinear, nonadditive, 186 organizational structure, 91-92 probability, 182-186 regression, 184-185 Modernization process, family and religion, 140-144 Monkeys, 17-18 Motivation, 50-58, 71, 234, 240-242, 248 Motor skills, complex actions, 30 Multinational corporations, 151 Music, hearing research on, 14 N National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 186 National Election Studies, 221 National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH), 204 National Institutes of Health (NIH), 81, 228, 229, 230, 232, 249, 256 National Longitudinal Survey of Inbox Market Experience, 121 National Opinion Research Center, 172 National Science Foundation (NSF), 81, 172, 204, 206, 223, 228-236, 249, 250, 253, 256-257 National security policy, 157 Neanderthal females, 132, 134 Negotiation, 106-108 Neoclassical economic theory, 111, 113, 117 Neural circuits, see Brain Neurochemistry, 54 Neuroendocrine correlates of stress, 64 Neuroimaging, 34, 218, 246, 247 Neuropeptides, 18 Neurotransmitters, 17 New Guinea facial expression research in, 52-53 gender research in, 76 Newtonian formulas, 28 Nonverbal communication, 51, 72 Nuclear deterrence, 107 Nuclear family, social change and, 140-143; see also Family o Occupations and gender, 115; see also Employment; Jobs; Labor Office of Technology Assessment (OTA), 224 Operant conditioning, 56, 57 Ordered factorial systems, 188-190 Organizational behavior, 86-91 in military establishments, 157 Organizational structure and evolution, 91-95 p Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), 118, 119, 121, 139, 163, 173, 219, 221 Parental behaviors, 68-69 Phonemics, 14, 38 Photography, vision research applications, 12 Physicians, expert systems use, 29 Physics cross-national study of, 146 problem solving in, 29 Political systems diffusion, 151-152 founding of, 91 and international security, 155-160

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Index / 28 1 knowledge and policy, 147-149 organizational politics of, 92-93 and religious systems, 143-144 and voting, 8~91 Population change in developing countries, 136-138 Positron-emission tomography (PET), 55, 218 Postdoctoral, see Fellowships Poverty, see Criminal careers; Employment; Jobs; Labor; Unemployment Price adjustments, 124 Price inertia, 109 Primate research, 32, 132 Prisons, cost-effectiveness of, 67 Probability models, data representation in, 182-186 Productivity, 73, 153-155 Prosocial disposition, 68-69 Protestant Reformation, 143 Public policy behavioral and social sciences and, 147-149 media and, 148 technology and science, 144-149 R Randomized field experiments, data collection methods, 171-172 Reading, 37-43 Reasoning, 27-30, 240 Recall, see Memory Recommendations, research opportunities and needs, 246 behavior, mind, and brain, 43-46 choice and allocation, 121-125 institutions and culture, 160-164 motivational contexts of behavior, 77-81 research methods, 197-199 Recommendations, research support animal care, 218, 246, 247 archives, corporate and local government, access to, 226, 247 computers, 215-218, 246, 247 data bases, large-scale, 219-220, 248 government data, access to, 222-225, 246, 247 graduate education, 207-210, 245-247 grants for individual investigators, 227-228, 246, 248-249 grants, size and duration of, 228-230 interdisciplinary research, 230-235, 248 neuroimaging devices, 218, 246, 247 undergraduate education, 205-207 Recommendations, summary of, 245-249 Records, see Archives and records Regulation and deregulation, 99-100 Relationships, 72-76 Religion, 140-141, 143-144, 248 Research needs, see Recommendations Retail price maintenance, 105 Robust statistical techniques, 193-194 S Satellites, use in censuses, 138 Scaling, geometric models, 187-188, 245 Science development of, 14~147 education, 27-30 technology and public policy, 144-149 Secondary schools and colleges, behavioral and social sciences curricula in, 205 Security policies, 157 Seizures, 19 Self-concepts, 70-75, 241 Sexual equality, 142 Sign language, 35, 240 Single-photon tomography (SPET), 218 Small groups, behavior and, 72-76 Smell, 57 Smithsonian Institution, 236, 253 Smoking, see Tobacco abuse Social change and nuclear family, 140-143 religion, and politics, 143-144 see also History Social competence, 54 Social construction theories, 76-77 Social interaction, 69-78 Social referencing, 51-53 Social Security Administration, 139, 163, 225 Speech, see Language State, Department of, 236 Statistical analysis of data, 190-197, 245; see also Models/modeling Status ordering, 75 Stress, 63 Supercomputers, 216 Survey designs, data collection methods, 172-173 Survey of Income and Program Participation, 121, 139, 221

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