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xt;~zI=x 2. Xelley, W. Are we about to enter the golden era of clinical investigation? J. Tech. and Clin. Mad. 111(4) :365 - 370, 1988. Withes, R. Paying for Patient Care in Treatment Rcsearoh--Who is Responsible? Cancer Treatment Reports 71(2) :107-114, 1987. 3. Antman, K., Schnipper, L.E., Frei, E. The crisis in clinical cancer research: thirdparty insurance and investigational therapy. N. Eng1. J. Mad. 319:46-48, 1988. Yarhro, J.W. and Rbrbenson, L.E. me Need for Diagncsis-Rela~ Group 471. CAME 253:684-685, 1985. 5. No Easy And; for Sufficient mird-~r~ Ca~re~ge of Clinical Trials Ed. "Ned", Journal of me National (her Institute 80 (10): 714-717, 1988. 6. Arxier:;on, G., eve, J. FinarK:ing garrote n~;~1 Cation arxt bid z~: whose r~nsibility? Health Polity 7:3-12, 1987. 7. Argon, G. Teaching Hospitals ~ the USA: nstitutions hoer Stress. Financial Ac~ntahility and Manage rent 3 (2) : 117-127, 1987. 8. U.S. fib of H`?=lff~' Education and Welfare, Public Health Service, National Institutes of Health, NIH Inventory of Clinical Trials: Fiscal year 1975 (Bethesda' ~D: NIH, 1975). Young, F.E. , Norris, J.A. , Levitt, J.A. , Nightingale, S.L. The FD\'s New procedures for the Use of Investigational Drugs in Treatment. CAME 259 : 2267-2270, 1988. 10. Hammer Agrees to Bush Request for Probe of FD~ on Cancer, AIDS Drugs. The Cancer Letter 14(29) :7, 1988. 11. FED Draft Proposal for Speeding Approval of Drugs for Life=Thrcatening Ilinesses is under CMB Review. The Blue Sheet, Sepk. 14, pp. 5-6, 1988. 12. The Commonwealth Fun] Report of the Task Force on Academic Health Centers: The Future Financing of Teaching Hospitals. Report III. 13. M~dicare's Prospective Payment Sysbem: Strategies for Evaluating Cost, Quality and M~di~1 Technology. oT~, 1985. 14. Shortage of Enrolled Patients Impedes Cancer-Drug Testing, Wa~i~bon Post, July 25, 1988. 17

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NIH Budget Fiscal Year 1987: $6 Billie NIH Clinical Trials Roget Fiscal Year 1987: $425 Allis. 16. F~ Policy for Biblical and Behavioral F~r~, APIA ad hoc niece an F - anal Perch Polity, UP- 13-17, 1986. 17. i, J.B. the Clinical Investigator as an Tiered Species. Roll. N.Y. Acad. Mad. 57(6):415-426, 1981. 18. ~man, B. and Genel, M. Ran investigation ~ the 1980's: Ares f~ ~ Shale ~nf~e. Clan. Pes. 31(5) :570-571, 1983. 19. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, NIH Data Book, 1987. 20. Levey, G.S., Sherman, C.R., Gentile, N.O., Hcugh, L.J., Dial, T.H., Jolly, P. Po6~50cboral research training of full-time faculty ~ academic departments of medicine. Ann. Intern Mad. 109:414-418, 1988. 21. Personnel Needs and Training for Biomedical and Behavioral Research. IoM Report, National Academy Press, 1985. 22. Nathan, D.G. Funding subs pecialty training for clinical investigators. N. Engl. J. Mad. 316:1020-1022, 1987. 23. Vaitukaitis, J.L. Changing Research Directions of Centers, 1987. 24. Fox, I.H. AFAR Position Pair: General Clinics Pi Canon;: A pr~3rmn ~ jelly. Clan. Peas. 30:437-440, 1982. Alley, W.N. Personnel rho for clinical rearm: role of he clinical investigator. Clln. Res. 33:100-104, 1985. 26. Temple, R. Payment of Clinical Investigators, presented at the Fed arx] Drug Law dilute, Or 16, 1987. 27. ~arma~uti~al ~n~factNr~ Obviation 1986-1987 Aronlal Survey R ~ ort. It Is estimated that the pharmaceutical intros ~ spent approximately one billion dollars on clinical trials in 1987. 28. National Health Policy Forum, Quality of Medical Care: Searching for Scientific Standards; Results of a workshop with D.M. Eddy, J.E. Wennberg, J.J. Gartland and K.B. Kudsen, April 11, 1988, Washing bon, D.C. 29. Ellwcod, P.M. Shattuck Lecture: Outs ones Management: A Technology of Patient Experience. N. Engl. J. of Med. 318:1549-1556, 1988 30. Wennberg, J.E. Invited Testimony before the Senate Finance Subocrmittee, July 11, 1988. 18

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31. Assessing Musical Technologies. Warn, D.C., 1985. ICM, National Academy Press, 32. Erg, J.E. Nary: roving the ~i~1 Dec~sion~ci~ Egress. Health Affair 7: (1-Spring 1988), UP- 99-106, 1988. 19