AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT

SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP

Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth

Jennifer Appleton Gootman, Editor

Board on Children, Youth, and Families

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education

National Research Council and

Institute of Medicine

NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS
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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth Jennifer Appleton Gootman, Editor Board on Children, Youth, and Families Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education National Research Council and Institute of Medicine NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS Washington, D.C.

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20418 NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the committee responsible for the report were chosen for their special competences and with regard for appropriate balance. The study was supported by Grant No. 99-7990 between the National Academy of Sciences and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Any opinions, findings, conclusions, or recommendations expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the view of the organizations or agencies that provided support for this project. International Standard Book Number 0-309-07179-8 Additional copies of this report are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Avenue, N.W., Lock Box 285, Washington, D.C. 20055. Call (800) 624-6242 or (202) 334-3313 (in the Washington metropolitan area) This report is also available online at http://www.nap.edu Printed in the United States of America Copyright 2000 by the National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Suggested citation: National Research Council and Institute of Medicine (2000) After-School Programs to Promote Child and Adolescent Development: Summary of a Workshop. Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth. J.A. Gootman, ed. Board on Children, Youth, and Families, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press.

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP THE NATIONAL ACADEMIES National Academy of Sciences National Academy of Engineering Institute of Medicine National Research Council The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts is president of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. William A. Wulf is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an adviser to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Kenneth I. Shine is president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy’s purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Bruce M. Alberts and Dr. William A. Wulf are chairman and vice chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council.

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP COMMITTEE ON COMMUNITY-LEVEL PROGRAMS FOR YOUTH JACQUELYNNE ECCLES (Chair), Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan CHERYL ALEXANDER, School of Hygiene and Public Health, Johns Hopkins University BRETT BROWN, Child Trends, Inc., Washington, D.C. SARAH BROWN, National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, D.C. KENYON CHAN, College of Liberal Arts, Loyola Marymount University ELIZABETH COLSON, Department of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley THOMAS COOK, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University PETER EDELMAN, Georgetown University Law Center CASWELL EVANS, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md. RONALD FERGUSON, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University ROBERT GRANGER, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, N.Y. TERESA LAFROMBOISE, School of Education, Stanford University REED LARSON, Department of Human and Community Development, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign MILBREY McLAUGHLIN, School of Education, Stanford University ROBERT PLOTNICK, School of Public Affairs, University of Washington ZENA STEIN, Joseph L. Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University Jennifer A. Gootman, Study Director Amy Gawad, Research Assistant Drusilla Barnes, Senior Project Assistant Elena Nightingale, Scholar-in-Residence

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP FORUM ON ADOLESCENCE 1999-2000 DAVID A. HAMBURG (Chair), Carnegie Corporation of New York (President Emeritus) HUDA AKIL, Mental Health Research Institute, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor CHERYL ALEXANDER, Center for Adolescent Health, Johns Hopkins University CLAIRE BRINDIS, Institute for Health Policy Studies, Division of Adolescent Medicine, University of California, San Francisco GREG DUNCAN, Institute for Policy Research, Northwestern University JACQUELYNNE ECCLES, School of Education, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor ABIGAIL ENGLISH, Center for Adolescent Health & the Law, Chapel Hill, North Carolina EUGENE GARCIA, School of Education, University of California, Berkeley HELENE KAPLAN, Skadden, Arps, Slate, Meagher, and Flom, New York IRIS F. LITT, Division of Adolescent Medicine, Stanford University JOHN MERROW, The Merrow Report, New York ANNE C. PETERSEN, W.K. Kellogg Foundation, Battle Creek, Michigan KAREN PITTMAN, International Youth Foundation, Takoma Park, Maryland ANNE PUSEY, Jane Goodall Institute’s Center, University of Minnesota MICHAEL RUTTER, Institute of Psychiatry, University of London STEPHEN A. SMALL, Department of Child and Family Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison CAMILLE ZUBRINSKY CHARLES, Department of Sociology, University of Pennsylvania BARUCH FISCHHOFF (Liaison, IOM Council), Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (Liaison, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology (emeritus), Stanford University

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES 1999-2000 JACK P. SHONKOFF (Chair), Heller Graduate School, Brandeis University EVAN CHARNEY (Vice Chair), Department of Pediatrics, University of Massachusetts JAMES A. BANKS, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington SHEILA BURKE, John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University DAVID CARD, Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley DONALD COHEN, Yale-New Haven Children’s Hospital, Yale University MINDY FULLILOVE, Columbia University KEVIN GRUMBACH, Department of Family and Community Medicine, Primary Care Research Center, University of California, San Francisco MAXlNE HAYES, Department of Community and Family Health, Washington State Department of Health MARGARET HEAGARTY, Department of Pediatrics, Harlem Hospital Center, Columbia University RENEE JENKINS, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Howard University SHEILA KAMERMAN, School of Social Work, Columbia University HARRIET KITZMAN, School of Nursing, University of Rochester SANDERS KORENMAN, School of Public Affairs, Baruch College CINDY LEDERMAN, Circuit Court, Juvenile Justice Center, Dade County, Florida SARA McLANAHAN, Office of Population Research, Princeton University VONNIE McLOYD, Center for Human Growth and Development, University of Michigan PAUL NEWACHECK, Institute of Health Policy Studies and Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco GARY SANDEFUR, Department of Sociology, University of Wisconsin, Madison

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP RUTH STEIN, Department of Pediatrics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine PAUL WISE, Department of Pediatrics, Boston Medical Center RUTH T. GROSS (Liaison, IOM Board on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention), Professor of Pediatrics (emeritus), Stanford University ELEANOR E. MACCOBY (Liaison, Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education), Department of Psychology (emeritus), Stanford University WILLIAM ROPER (Liaison, IOM Council), Institute of Medicine, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill Michele D. Kipke, Director Mary Graham, Associate Director, Dissemination and Communications Mary Strigari, Administrative Associate Elena Nightingale, Scholar-in-Residence

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP WORKSHOP ON OPPORTUNITIES TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT DURING THE AFTER-SCHOOL HOURS PRESENTERS JACQUELYNNE ECCLES (Workshop Chair), Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan MICHELE CAHILL, Carnegie Corporation of New York JENNIFER DAVIS, Mayor’s Office, Boston, Massachusetts JOY DRYFOOS, Hastings-on-Hudson, New York ROBERT HALPERN, Erickson Institute, Chicago, Illinois KAREN HEIN, William T. Grant Foundation, New York, New York ROBIN JARRETT, Human and Community Development, University of Illinois, Urbana-Campaign MARY LARNER, Center for the Future of Children, The David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Los Altos, California JOAN LOMBARDI, Bush Center in Child Development and Social Policy, New Haven, Connecticut RICHARD NEGRON, Children’s Aid Society, New York, New York TERRY PETERSON, U.S. Department of Education KAREN PITTMAN, International Youth Foundation, Takoma Park, Maryland JANE QUINN, DeWitt Wallace-Reader’s Digest Fund, New York, New York ELIZABETH REISNER, Policy Studies Institute, Washington, D.C. CARLA SANGER, LA’s BEST After School Enrichment Program, Los Angeles, California CARTER SAVAGE, Boys & Girls Clubs of America, Atlanta, Georgia CONSTANCIA WARREN, Academy for Educational Development, New York, New York HEATHER WEISS, Harvard Family Research Project, Cambridge, Massachusetts NOTE: See the appendix for the full list of workshop participants.

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP Contents     PREFACE   xiii     INTRODUCTION   1     POLICY ENVIRONMENT   3     DEVELOPMENTAL CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES   7     DESCRIBING AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS   12     COMPONENTS OF HIGH-QUALITY AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS   17     THREE INNOVATIVE APPROACHES   20     EVALUATING AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS   27     BRIDGING THE GAP IN RESEARCH, POLICY, AND PRACTICE   29     CONCLUSION   33     REFERENCES   35     APPENDIX: WORKSHOP AGENDA AND PARTICIPANTS   37     SELECTED REPORTS OF THE BOARD ON CHILDREN, YOUTH, AND FAMILIES   53

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP Preface This report summarizes the presentations and discussion at a workshop entitled Opportunities to Promote Child and Adolescent Development During the After-School Hours, convened on October 21, 1999. The workshop was organized by the Board on Children, Youth, and Families and its Forum on Adolescence of the National Research Council and the Institute of Medicine, with funding from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. The workshop brought together policy makers, researchers, and practitioners to examine research on the developmental needs of children and adolescents —ages 5 to 14 years—and the types of after-school programs designed to promote the health and development of these young people. Intended to provide a forum for discussion among the various stakeholders, the workshop did not generate conclusions about the types of programs that are most effective, nor did it generate specific recommendations about after-school programs or promote a particular approach. The workshop coincided with release of the Packard Foundation’s fall 1999 issue of The Future of Children, entitled “When School Is Out.” Focusing on after-school programs, the journal provided some context for the workshop, providing a backdrop for discussing the importance of after-school programs, the types of programs that exist across the country, and the policy climate that surrounds after-school programs. Although this summary draws on “When School Is Out” to supplement specific statements made at the workshop, neither the workshop nor this summary re-

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP port incorporated the level of detail or scope of information contained in that publication. This volume draws on presentations and discussion at the workshop. Of necessity, it reflects the particular emphases of the workshop presentations as well as specific statements made by presenters during the workshop. Although this report references published materials suggested or provided by workshop presenters, it is not intended to provide a comprehensive or thorough review of the field. The workshop was an effort to take stock of the current knowledge base on after-school programs and highlight key findings from recent research. It was also convened to help inform the future work of the Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth, a new initiative of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families and its Forum on Adolescence. Given the limitations of both time and scope, the workshop could not address all issues that are certainly very important when considering the development, health, and well-being of children and adolescents during after-school hours. It is our hope that this report will help to illuminate important issues of after-school programs that deserve further attention and consideration. This report has been reviewed in draft form by individuals chosen for their diverse perspectives and technical expertise, in accordance with procedures approved by the Report Review Committee of the National Research Council. The purpose of this independent review is to provide candid and critical comments that will assist the institution in making the published report as sound as possible and to ensure that the report meets institutional standards for objectivity, evidence, and responsiveness to the study charge. The review comments and draft manuscript remain confidential to protect the integrity of the deliberative process. We thank the following individuals for their participation in the review of this report: James A. Banks, Center for Multicultural Education, University of Washington, Seattle; Thomas Brock, Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation, New York, New York; Doug Kirby, ETR Associates, Scotts Valley, California; Deborah Vandell, Department of Educational Psychology, University of Wisconsin; and Billie Young, Child Development Programs for the City of Seattle, Department of Human Services. Although the individuals listed above provided constructive comments and suggestions, it must be emphasized that responsibility for the final

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AFTER-SCHOOL PROGRAMS TO PROMOTE CHILD AND ADOLESCENT DEVELOPMENT: SUMMARY OF A WORKSHOP content of this report rests entirely with the authoring committee and the institution. Many individuals deserve recognition for their contributions to the workshop and this report. The workshop and this report were funded the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. Special thanks go to Mary Larner at the Packard Foundation for her assistance and support. Michele D. Kipke, director of the Board on Children, Youth, and Families, conceptualized and planned the workshop. Jennifer A. Gootman, study director of the board’s Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth, helped organize the workshop and distilled its major themes into this summary report. Other staff members who assisted with the workshop and the report include Amy Gawad, Drusilla Barnes, and Zodie Makonnen. The workshop benefited enormously from the insightful comments provided by the workshop presenters. Jacquelynne Eccles, Chair Committee on Community-Level Programs for Youth

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