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TACTICAL OCEANOGRAPHY SYMPOSIUM Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California ~ 2-1 5 March ~ 990 UNClASSIFIED SUMMARY REPORT Navy Panel Ocean Studies Board National Research Council December 1991

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NOTICE: The project that is the subject of this report was approved by the Governing Board of the National Research Council, whose members are drawn from the councils of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The members of the panel responsible for the report were chosen for their special competencies and with regard for appropriate balance. This report has been reviewed by a group other than the authors according to procedures approved by a Report Review Committee consisting of members of the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, and the Institute of Medicine. The National Academy of Sciences is a private, nonprofit, self-perpetuating society of distinguished scholars engaged in scientific and engineering research, dedicated to the furtherance of science and technology and to their use for the general welfare. Upon the authority of the charter granted to it by the Congress in 1863, the Academy has a mandate that requires it to advise the federal government on scientific and technical matters. Dr. Frank Press in the President of the National Academy of Sciences. The National Academy of Engineering was established in 1964, under the charter of the National Academy of Sciences, as a parallel organization of outstanding engineers. It is autonomous in its administration and in the selection of its members, sharing with the National Academy of Sciences the responsibility for advising the federal government. The National Academy of Engineering also sponsors engineering programs aimed at meeting national needs, encourages education and research, and recognizes the superior achievements of engineers. Dr. Robert M. White is president of the National Academy of Engineering. The Institute of Medicine was established in 1970 by the National Academy of Sciences to secure the services of eminent members of appropriate professions in the examination of policy matters pertaining to the health of the public. The Institute acts under the responsibility given to the National Academy of Sciences by its congressional charter to be an advisor to the federal government and, upon its own initiative, to identify issues of medical care, research, and education. Dr. Stuart Bondurant is acting president of the Institute of Medicine. The National Research Council was organized by the National Academy of Sciences in 1916 to associate the broad community of science and technology with the Academy's purposes of furthering knowledge and advising the federal government. Functioning in accordance with the general policies determined by the Academy, the Council has become the principal operating agency of both the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering in providing services to the government, the public, and the scientific and engineering communities. The Council is administered jointly by both Academies and the Institute of Medicine. Dr. Frank Press and Dr. Robert M. White are chairman and vice-chairman, respectively, of the National Research Council. The work was sponsored by the Office on the Oceanographer of the Navy and the Office of Naval Research under Contract No. N00014-89~-1501. Available in limited supply from Ocean Studies Board National Research Council 2101 Constitution Ave., N.W. Washington, DC 20418 Printed in the United States of America e 11

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NAW PANEL John Orcutt, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Chairman Craig Dorman, Mooch Hole Oceanographic Institution Peter Jumars, University of Washington Walter Munk, Scripps institution of Oceanography James J. O'Brien, Florida State University John G. ScIater, University of Texas at Austin Robert C. Spindel, University of Washington Oliver C. Zafiriou, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution ~e

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OCEAN STUDIES BOARD Car' Wunsch, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Chairman Donald F. Boesch, University of Maryland Peter G. Brewer, Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Kenneth Brink, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Robert Cannon, Stanford University Sallie W. Chisholm, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Biliana Cicin-Sain, University of Delaware Robert Detrick, University of Rhode island Craig Dorman, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Gordon Eaton, Lamont-Doher~ Geological Observatory Edward A. Frieman, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Arnold L. Gordon, Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory Gordon Greve, Amoco Production Company William Merrell, Texas A&M University Arthur R.M. Nowell, University of Washington Dennis A. Powers, Stanford University Brian Rothschild, University of Maryland John G. ScIater, Scripps Institution of Oceanography Karl K. Turekian, Yale University Liaison Members Robert BeardsIey, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Syukuro Manabe, Princeton University Staff Mary Hope Katsouros, Staff Director Edward R. Urban, Jr., Staff Officer Robin Rice, Staff Associate Maureen Hage, Aciministrative Assistant LaVoncye Mallory, Senior Secretary Stephen Nathan, Secretary IV

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COMMISSION ON GEOSCIENCES, ENVIRONMENT, AND RESOURCES M. Gordon Wolman, The Johns Hopkins University, Chairman Robert C. BeardsIey, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution B. Clark Burchfiel, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Ralph J. Cicerone, University of California at Irvine Peter S. Eagleson, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Helen M. Ingram, University of Arizona Gene E. Likens, New York Botanical Garden Syukuro Manabe, Princeton University Jack E. Oliver, Cornell University Philip A. Palmer, E.~. du Pont de Nemours & Co. Frank L. Parker, Vanderbilt University Duncan T. Paden, Arizona State University Maxine L. Savitz, Allied Signal Aerospace Company Larry L. Smarr, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Steven M. Stanley, The Johns Hopkins University Crispin Tickell, Green College at the Radcliffe Observatory Karl K. Turekian, Yale University Irvin L. White, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority James H. Zumberge, University of Southern California Staff Stephen Ranien, Executive Director Stephen D. Parker, Associate Executive Director Janice E. MehIer, Assistant Executive Director deanehe Spoon, Financia/ Officer Carlita Perry, Administrative Assistant Robin Lewis, Senior Project Assistant v

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FOREWORD At the request of Admiral Richard F. Pitenger, the Oceanographer of the Navy, a Symposium on Tactical Oceanography was held in March 1990 at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. The symposium was organized by the Navy Pane! of the Ocean Studies Board and supported by the Office of the Oceanographer of the Navy and the Office of Naval Research. Its purposes were: 1) to familiarize the academic oceanographic community with Navy activities and operational requirements and 2) to convey the latest scientific findings from academic scientists to Navy scientists and operational personnel. The symposium concentrated on the use of acoustics in antisubmarine warfare (ASW). ASW has been the Navy's highest operational priority for the last five years, because of increasing concern about the significant acoustic quieting of new Soviet submarines. Approximately ~ 25 individuals participatecd, half from the academic community and half from the military community. The symposium was held at the secret level. This was the first such symposium in twenty-five years. This report serves as an unclassified summary and record of the symposium that was requested by the Oceanographer of the Navy. It can be provided to interested individuals without restrictions. The symposium was preceded by a tactical oceanography simulation to acquaint the academic participants with Navy needs and capabilities. In the subsequent symposium, Navy and academic presenters discussed topics including operational uses, data bases, acoustic models, ocean prediction, and remote sensing. For each of these topics discussed, the current state of knowledge and requirements for Navy operations were discussed. The organizers view this symposium as the first in a series of symposia designed to promote Navy-academic cooperation and information exchange. This report is limited to discussions that occurred at the symposium and is not an exhaustive review of each subject. In particular, coastal tactical oceanography was not discussed in great detail at the symposium, but was the subject of a symposium held in 1991, which will be summarized in an upcoming report. Vl